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赵汀阳等 | 柏林论辩: 天下制度的存在论论证及疑问

日期: 2019-06-17

2019年11月4日,柏林自由大学哲学系举办BB视讯官网赵汀阳《天下的当代性》德文版(Suhrkamp出版社)的讨论会,汉斯·费格(Hans Feger)教授主持,赵汀阳做了开场发言并对每个发言人的问题做出回应。讨论涉及天下体系的基本原则和逻辑基础、应然与实然、平等和民主、人权和义务、博弈论应用等问题。由于篇幅所限,在此只选取了发言人的部分论点以及赵汀阳的回应。


本文作者包括: 赵汀阳(中国社会科学院哲学所研究员);汉斯·费格(Hans Feger,柏林自由大学哲学系主任,教授);斯蒂凡·戈思帕(Stefan Gosepath,柏林自由大学哲学系教授);安乐哲(Roger Ames,北京大学教授);拉夫·韦伯,(Ralph Weber,巴塞尔大学教授);孙向晨(复旦大学教授,柏林自由大学客座教授);露易丝·缪勒(Luise Müller,德累斯顿工业大学教授);沃尔特·范库和(Walter Pfannkuche,卡塞尔大学哲学系主任,教授);格拉汉姆·帕克斯 (Graham Parkes, 维也纳大学教授);克莉丝汀·纽豪泽尔(Christian Neuhäuser,多特蒙德工业大学教授 );罗宾·西利凯特斯(Robin Celikates,柏林自由大学教授 )。在此感谢作者们提供了文本,同时感谢菲利普·布伦诺齐(Philippe Brunozzi,卡塞尔大学教授)和汉宁·哈恩(Henning Hahn,柏林自由大学教授)BB视讯官网了会议并收集了论文。


*本文刊发于《世界哲学》2020年第3期。


BB视讯官网bolinlunbian: tianxiazhidudecunzailunlunzhengjiyiwen

fanyishuwanghuimin

BB视讯官网 xiaodingshuzhaotingyang 


开场发言

赵汀阳: 一个宪法性的天下


我先要感谢来参加讨论的每一位学者。除了书中的观点,我想补充介绍近来的一个设想,即对天下体系或可能有意义的“智慧民主”概念(smart democracy)。


对“天下”概念的重构,是基于天下作为3000年前中国的政治起点,与欧洲的作为政治起点的古希腊城邦形成具有互补意义的对比。天下概念表明了中国的政治思维始于“世界”问题而不是“国家”,这是一种早熟的世界治理政治想象。当今世界的全球性政治局势与技术条件与民族国家体系已经不相适应,因此我想通过重启天下概念来思考未来的世界治理,试图论证一个为了所有人并属于所有人的世界秩序。它不是一个乌托邦,而是一个可能实现的共享世界,可称为共托邦(contopia)。


对天下概念的重构缘于两个理由: 第一,我曾长期信任康德的和平理论,后来发现它经不起亨廷顿的文明冲突理论的挑战。康德式和平适用于具有相似价值观、宗教与政治体制的国家之间,而文明冲突是落在这些条件之外的严重问题;第二个理由是,对于处理世界政治,国际政治是失效的。国际政治不过是由威慑、制裁、干涉、平衡、冷战与战争等敌对策略组成的无效博弈,不能解决任何深刻的冲突。


我不同情对政治概念的一些常见的误导性理解,我认为真正的政治不是寻找和确认敌人,战争也不是政治的延续。事实上,制造敌人和发动战争正是政治失败的证明。政治必须是化敌为友的艺术,否则等于无所作为,只不过重复了自然状态。我试图回归超越对立的天下概念,设想一个在世界宪法保证下的和平世界体系。直到今天,世界仍是一个停留在“原初状态”的非世界,与霍布斯的自然状态相去不远,充满了对抗、敌意与文明的冲突,在其中,无政府状态的世界与BB视讯官网良好的国家极为不协调。这是一个缺乏世界性的失效世界。天下体系意图构建一个政治世界,从而有效解决世界规模的问题,应对科技、经济、气候与文明等方面的风险。可以看到,产生于17至19世纪的现代理论已经计穷力竭,难以应对当今及未来的新问题。


天下体系建立在共在存在论(ontology of coexistence)的基础上,包含三个宪法性的概念: (1)世界的内部化,即所有人和所有国家都内含在一个共享体系内,使整个世界都变成内部而不再有负面外部性;(2)关系理性,即相互敌对最小化优先于排他利益最大化的理性思维方式,因此与追求个人利益最大化的个人理性形成反差;(3)孔子改进(Confucian Improvement),即任何一个人的利益得到改善,当且仅当,其他所有人也必然获得利益改善。这是对一切人无例外的利益改善,因此优于帕累托改进。也可以表达为,孔子改进等价于每个人同时实现帕累托改进。


未来的天下政治还需要“智慧的民主”(smart democracy)的助力,那是一种基于箕子思想的民主概念。伟大的政治家箕子曾为周朝的天下体系提出过一种民主“决疑”方案,虽从未在历史中得到实施,却留下BB视讯官网智慧民主的初始构思。箕子的方案要点在于寻求人心与天意的一致同意。其投票方案设定了5票,其中,3票代表人心,包括君主意见1票,多数大臣意见1票,多数民意1票,另有2个加权票,由两种占卜代表天意。在文明早期,占卜被视为可信知识,类似今天我们对科学的信任。在当代语境下,占卜的加权票自当替换为科学的加权票。箕子方案的要点是,如果集体决疑能够具有可信性,那么民主制度本身必须自带智慧,而能够自带智慧的民主必须是一种知识加权的民主。


箕子的富有启发意义的投票规则大致如下:


R1: 如君主、大臣、民众以及两种占卜一致同意某项提案,意味着它是最优选择;


R2: 如果提案只得到1张人心票,无论来自君主、大臣或百姓,而同时得到2张占卜票的支持,那么这项提案是有条件合理的;


R3: 如有1张占卜票不支持提案,即使得到人心票的全数支持,也只适用于可控的国内环境,而不支持任何对外的冒险行动;


R4: 如果2张占卜票都反对提案,即使获得人心票的全数支持,也断不可行。


显然可见,知识的加权票被赋予了比人的意愿票更大的权重。这意味着,知识加权民主的目的是让知识引导民主,以帮助人们做出更加理性的决策。经过优化的知识加权民主可以用于新的天下。在非君主制的条件下,5票可缩减为3票,只留下1张人心票来代表多数民众的意愿,如同现代民主所为,保留2张知识加权票,由两个知识委员会来做出民主决定,即科学委员会和人文委员会。知识委员会的成员从德高望重的科学家和人文学者中选拔出来,代表了免于政府和政党控制的可信知识选票。投票程序包含两个步骤: 首先,人民按照意愿选出预选的选项;然后,知识委员会给出知识加权票,赞同或否决预选的选项。因此,它定义了分立的权力: 民众决定什么是可欲的,知识委员会决定什么是可行的。如果民主被如此设计,民主便似乎具备了内嵌于制度本身的智慧,而将人心的盲目性降至最低,仅凭制度本身便可有效避免非理性的选择,所以称为智慧民主。


普遍主义 vs. 天下 – 中国的康德

汉斯·费格


在讨论对普遍主义的不同理解时很容易陷入文化相对主义。我不打算寻找康德传统中的“西方”普遍主义与儒家传统的“东方”普遍主义(天下)之间的相似性,而准备尽可能尖锐地展现两者的差异。在《真理与方法》中,伽达默尔曾说: “向他者开放就意味着承认我必须去接受某些反对我自己的东西,即使没有任何他人要求我这样做。”[1]


《真理与方法》伽达默尔著,洪汉鼎译,商务印书馆,2007


康德以个人作为起始点来实现自由的普遍化,并将道德原则——绝对命令——视为决定一个人行为的意志准则。有人可能会为其贴上“无约束的自我”(unencumbered self)的标签,就像桑德尔就曾如此批评过罗尔斯。但道德原则绝不仅仅是一个私人的操作,并非限于为了个人行为的自我决定。在康德的语境下,自我规定的道德理论同时也是政治自由概念的基础。不论是康德的道德法则,还是他的法律原则或政治正义的策略,都必须通过自我规定的道德理论来获得在其背后的人类意志自由的理解。甚至一个行为的可归责性(imputability)以及法律的能力也都必须奠基在行为的自由性之上。缺少了可归责性,一个做出“行为”的人永远不能“被视为一个后果的事主”[2]。


与之形成明显对比,中国传统思想不将个人视为自我规定而自治自律(autonomous)的人,而是作为“关系系统”中的一员,通过责任与关心来定义其自身。“ethics”(伦理)在汉语中的意思就是“人际关系的准则”。由于每个人生来就被社会赋予了责任和义务,他因此无法通过“无知之幕”(罗尔斯)来实现正义。根据新儒家杜维明的解析,中国的个人位于人际关系构成的同心圆的中心,圆圈之间相互产生影响和交集。人际关系圈从家庭开始,扩展到工作和生活中接触到的老老少少,到朋友,到共同体,到国家,最终到整个宇宙[3]。这些关系所遵循的规则不是法则(laws),而是以关系为指向的基于特定社会条件下的伦理准则和礼仪(rituals),它们表达了人们的互相关心、善意和同情、感激以及社会和谐的状态。儒家伦理的普遍性假设是无边界的,它要 “关照天下一切事物”(大概是“以天下为己任”——范仲淹)。这个目标不是去实现一种具有普遍性的合体(unity),而是世界的整全性(wholeness of the world)。康德意义上的普遍性在中国从未被提及过。 


如果将中国式的“天下体系”与康德的普遍主义做比较,不仅矛盾和差别变得显著,原则之间的对立也凸显出来。康德的道德哲学建立在作为“一切道德法则和责任的唯一原则”的意志自主自律性之上。这个自主自律性不是善良行为的规范的根源;它仅仅是规范得以具有约束力的内在本性,但康德不是“意愿道德”(morality of intention)的理论家。传统中国的道德理想却基于共情、利他主义的规范和礼仪,目标是培养和实现至高美德——仁,一种经验性的目标。其中,道德模范即是处于国家等级制中最高位置上的人。正是通过这种方式,儒家的伦理价值成为了独裁统治借以维持自身的手段。


赵汀阳


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天下提出的问题

安乐哲


天下是中国人的常用词,日常用来表示“世界”。同时,天下也是中国传统经学中的地缘政治概念,有着深刻的历史和哲学意蕴。现在这个技术性术语被认为是用来思考正在演变中的新世界秩序与世界治理模式的中国式框架——称为“天下体系”——它的意义得到了广泛讨论。尽管对天下概念有多种阐释,但可以确定的是,在中国的过程宇宙论中,这个概念缘起于中国对国际关系的生态化理解,它承认在一切经济与政治活动中各国之间有着相互性和互相依存性。作为“世界”的天下将“活力关系”(vital relationship)置于首要地位,而将民族国家这种分离的主权实体当成是活力有机关系的次级分化(second-order abstraction)。


yitianxiaweijiegoudezhongguolaizinali?zheigewentixiyinlezhongguolishixuejiamendeguanzhu。xianzaibaizaiwomenmianqiandezheibenzhuanzhuliyoudangdaizhexuejiazhaotingyangjichudeyigedaan。zhaotingyangminruidizhuyidao,neixiezuijuyingxianglidejieshizhongguodelilunbujinjiangzhongguoyingzhuangjinxifangdegainianhefanchouzhong,haibufakebanchengjian。yinci,tatongshixiangzhongxifangxuezhefachu“zhongsizhongguo”detiaozhan[4],bingtichuledujuyigedezhongguo“xuanwo”moshilaiquanshitianxiadeshenfenrentongzaizhongguodezhongyuandadishangzhujianbeijiangouqilaidelishiguocheng。


tianxiarentongdexingchengshiyouyixiliexianghuguanliande“wenhuayouhuo”suoqudongde,qizhongzuizhongyaodeyinsushizhongguodeshuxiewenzi,haibaokuochengzaizhekegongxiangwenhuadejingxuewenben,yijiconghexinwenhuazhongfazhanchulaidezhengzhishenxue。zhengshizheixiejuyouhaozhaolideyinsujiangzhongyuanyijizhoubiandiqudebutongzuqunjuanrudaolexuanwozhizhong。xuanwomoshizaozai3000nianqiandexiashangzhoushiqibiankaishichengxing,jiezheyibutongxingshiyanxu,zhidaoqingchaojieshu。zhaotingyangzaishuzhongtichudexinyingerlingrenxinfudelundian,bujingaosuwomengairuhelijiezhongguo,yebangzhuzhongguolaigenghaodilijieziji。


jianggudaizhongguoshiweiwuwaitianxiadexuanwomoshi,zhaotingyangdelilundangranjifalewomenquzhongsijingxuewenbenzhongdeguanjianzhexuegainian,bingyicilaidudongbuduanyanbiandezhongguowenhuachuantong。womenhuoxuhaikeyizaigengguangfandelingyuyingyongzheigelilun,jiangtazuoweilijiewomenzheigeshidaidediyuanzhengzhigejudeyizhongxindeshijiao,jineryujianweilaidekenengxing。zheigeyouzhewenhuayouhuolidexuanwomoshijiangruhelaibangzhuwomenqusikaoyouzhechonggaomubiaodanyoulingrenyoulvdeoumeng?ouzhou,zaidangjinshidaikukuxunqiuziwogaibianquedaiyouzhewangude、juyoufenliexingdeweisitefaliyasiweibeijingdeouzhou,jiangruhecainengxingchengyigezaijingji、zhengzhihewenhuazhixushangyou“ouzhoutese”detianxia?


赵汀阳


ganxieninduixuanwomoshidefenxi。nindewentinanduhengaodanhenxiyinren: ouzhoushifoukeyifazhanchuyigeouzhoutesedetianxia?wokongpameiyouzugoudezhihuilaihuidanindezheigewenti。zaiwokanlai——buzhishifoukeyitanlvdijiang?——ouzhoucengjingcuoshilebenkeyichengweijudaxuanwodeliangcijihui: diyicishinapolunshidaidefaguo,ruguodangshifaguonenggoubbshixunguanwangqileisiyuoumengdebbshixunguanwang,erbushimangzhexiangqitaouzhouguojiakaizhandehua;diercishiyizhanzhiqianrurizhongtiandedeguo,danqiantishitaxuyaoshixingminzhugaige。dangshideyingguogengyoushiliheyingxiangli,danyingguoyuoulusihuzaimouxiefangmianhennanxiediao。buzhidaowoshuodeduibudui?woyexuxiangduole。


duiyudangdaioumenglaijiang,xuanwoshidejihuisihuyijingshiqule,tadejiheliguoyuboruo,youruninsuoyan,youzhebaokuoweisitefaliyasiweizaineidehenduolaonanti。oumenglveweiyoudianleisiyuzhouchaotianxiatixizhiqiandesongsanbangguolianmeng。zaizhongguodeqiubangshidaiwanqi(yaoshunxiashang),gediyouzhexiangsideshangtianxinyang,youzhegebuxiangtongdediyuwenhua,xianghujianjianlilemiqiejiaoliu,renqunzaiqijianziyouqianxihuoyiju,danzaijingjihejunduishangshidulide,zaineishi,mengzhushizhongxiaobanggongtongtuizundezuidaqiubang。dangranyuoumengyouzhegengduobutongzhichu,oumengshijianlizaigaodufadademinzuguojiazhishangdexiandaitixi,youzheyangedeqiyueguanxi。wuyimaofandishuo,zaiguojiajibiedewentishang,birushuoruhejianlilianghaozhilideguojia,yijiruheyidiguozhuyishouduanzaiguojiboyizhongmouqiuguojialiyi,ouzhoudouyouzhezuichengshuhewanshandezhengzhisixiang。danzaiduishijiejibiedezhengzhilijieshang,ouzhousixiangzourulewuqu,ji,shituyongguojiachidulaizhangliangzhenggeshijie,jiangguojizhengzhihuntongyushijiezhengzhi。qizhongyigeyuanyinjiushiqueshaoxiangtianxiazheiyangjuyoushijiexingde(world-ness)degainian,yinciweinengyishijiekanshijie、weinengchaoyueguojiashijiaoerxingchengyizhonglijieshijiegongtongliyideshijiegainian(worldism)——youbieyutuiguangzishendeshijiezhuyi。ouzhoudiguozhuyideshibaizhengshiyinweishituyizhiliguojiadeshouduanlaitongzhizhenggeshijie,zheiyushijieguimodewentigegeburu。qingyunxuwozhongtitianxiagainiandeyigetedian,jiguzhongguoshituyizhilishijiedefangshilaizhiliguojia。zhouchaofamingtianxiatixi,liyoushitianxiayingdangshitianxiasuoyourendeyigongzaide“gongkeneng”shijie(jieyonglaibunizigainian),zheiyangcainenggou“peitian”——zheishiyizhongbunengdedaokexuezhengmingdanjuyouxianyanhelixingdezhengzhishenxue。zhouchaodechenggongzaiyutanenggourongnaduowenhua,xishouqianchaodejingyanheyichan,yincizaojiule“yuyuhuwenzai”dezhouwenming——zheizongrangwoxiangqilaibunizisuoshuodebiaoxianwei“zuifengfujihedegongkenengcunzai”dezuihaokenengshijie。wobuquedingweilaiouzhoushifouhuichengweiyigezhengzhitianxia,danjianliyige“wenhuatianxia”yinggaihenyoujihui,yinweiouzhouzaizhishi、sixiangheyishudenglingyuyiranjuyouyoushidiwei。


BB视讯官网zhiyuxiandaizhongguo,worenweitayuouzhouzhijianyibuzaiyouduilixingdechabie。xiandaizhongguoyijingchengweiyigekuawenhuawenming,bufendihanyouxifangwenhua,xifangwenhuayijingbeizhiruweizhongguodeneibuyaosu。ruguoyijiuyichuantongzhongguodemoyanglaikanzhongguo,kongpahuichanshengwujie。dangran,mouxiexianyande“zhongguotezheng”yijiucunzai,youqizaifangfalunhezhexuezhong。biru,zhongguodexingershangxuerenweiyigeshiwuningkebaochibuwanmeidezhuangtai,caiyougengduokongjianlaiyingduibukeyuliaodebianhua,erwanmeideshiwuyouyumeiyoubianhuayudierbiandecuiruo,wangwangnanyizhangjiu。wochengzhiwei“buwanmeizhuyi”;lingwaihaiyouyingbianxingdesiweifangfalun,rulaozisuoyan,yingdangyongyuanxiang“shui”yiyangsuixingercheng,caiyouzuidadeshengcunjihui;haiyouzhongguorenduizhongduoshenmingdetongdengjingyang,zheiyuyishenjiaochuantongxingchengduibi。wozai《yishenlundeyingzi》zheibenyufaguorenleixuejiaalan·lebixiong(alain le pichon)hezhudeshuzhong,taolunleyizhong“kuozhanbandepasikaduzhu”,yisishi,zaifengxianguibidelixingjisuanxia,ruguopasikajichudexinyangshangdideliyoushizhengquede,neimejiuyoutongyangdeliyoujingweisuoyoushen。zheinenggoujieshiweishenmezhongguobunanjienaqitazongjiaohebiechudezhexue。buguotianzhujiaotulebixionggaosuwo,tayidiandoubuxinshangpasika “xiangshangrenyiyangjingyusuanji”deduzhu。


对《天下的当代性》的几点评论

拉夫·韦伯


我的关注点或有点奇怪。这与对周朝至战国时期的天下体系论述有关。在本书中,赵汀阳出色地引用了西方各种理论(从霍布斯到沃勒斯坦),但当他反复强调那个几无中断贯穿于先秦乃至整个皇朝历史的大一统传统(monolithic tradition)时,或为至少存在于精神中的天下理念提供历史证词时,赵几乎只引用了中国学术成果。事实上,欧美汉学界也有大量研究成果。尤其在许多新的出土文献被发掘之后,一些专家甚至建议应当彻底重写中国的早期历史。赵似乎不在意这些西方研究,而更愿意引用老一辈大师以及中国大陆的新近学者。


qizhongdeyuanyinkenengshiyinweifeidaludexuezheduizhongguodayitongchuantongchiyougengduodepipantaidu。dangzhaotingyangyinyongdalianggujilaimiaohuizhoutianxiashi(baokuorujia、daojia、fajiayijimojia),tazuizhongdeluojiaodianshiyifudayitongdetujing。dangmouxiewenbenzaiguandianshangchuxianbuyizhishi,tachangchangjiangzhenglunshiweibuchong: kongzimeinengdadaode,laozinengbuchongshang;hanfeizibuzudedifang,《guanzi》nengbuquan。dangran,genjuchutuwenxian,jiangzhanguoshiqigejiajinxingqufendechuantongzuofashiyouwentide,dancongbujinxiangtongdegejiaxueshuotuiduanchutamengongxianglexiangtongdewentihelilun,zheiyebutuodang。zaiwokanlai,zhaotingyangweilenenggouzuizhongdechuyigehannayiqiedetianxiatixi,youyilveguolechayi。jinguanyuanyinlehenduolishicailiao,danshuzhongdelishisihushi“feilishide”(a-historical)。zhaobuxinrenduijingdianwenbendeliuxingchanshi,ershibuduandigaosuduzhe《daodejing》huo《xunzi》zhongdemoujuhuadezhenshiyisishishenme,haoxiangtamenquandounengbeijieshiweiyouliyudayitongshijieguandelilunzhengming。


duitianxialilundegouxiang,woyouyigeyuzhixiangguandezhexuewentixiangyaotaolun,bbshixunguanwangis(shi,shiran)yuought(yingshi,yingran)zhijiandeguanxi。zhaotingyangsihushituyimouzhongfangshixiaojieisyuoughtdequfen。yifangmian,tianxiatixishi(is)henzhongyaode,bingnengyouxiaodidiyuxifangdeguojiatixi,houzhezaizhaokanlaishijingbuqidangjinshijiewentidetiaozhande;lingyifangmian,dangdaizhongguoyingdangchengwei(ought to be)tianxiadexinhexin,bingyinlingweilaideshijiezhixu。zheicenghanyimeiyoubeizhibaidibiaoluchulai,danquanshudeshedingyijiduirujiadeyinyong(biru,“kongzigaijin”)douanzhilezheigefangxiang。buguo,duiisheoughtzhifendezuimingxianxiaojiehaishitixianzaitianxiagainianbenshenzhong。suirantianxiatixicunzaiyuzhouchao,dan“tianxia”dehanyijiushitiankongxiadeyiqie,jizhenggeshijie,yincizheigeshijieyijiuyoudaichengweitianxia,yinweitianxiadepingeshiwuwaide,tademubiaobeishedingweijianrongxingdezuidahuayuyiqierendekegongzaixing(co-existentiality)。zaizhaodegainianhuatianxiazhong,cunzaizheyizhongwanmeizhuyiqingxiang,shidetianxiatixidelishibanben(biruzhoudeshili)yuweilaidekenengxingshi(biruzhaogouxiangdeweilaishijiezhixu)kanqilaidouhaibugouwanmei。zheizhongjieyuisyuoughtzhijiandegainianbujinzaixuduofangmiandouhenyouxiyinli,haitigongleyigezaililunshangjinkegong、tuikeshoudehuixuankongjian。


赵汀阳


BB视讯官网ganxienintichulefuyoujianshexingdepiping。keyikanchuninyuedulehenduozhongguojingdian。woshouxianyaojieshibbshixunguanwangchutuwenxiandeshiqing,ninsihurenweitamendaibiaolegengzhenshidezhongguo。deque,xinfajuedewenxianjieshileyixiezhangjiuyilaiweizhidezhenxiang。biru,yipianchutudezaoqiwenxianxianshi,rujiayudaojiazhijiandeduiliyuanbenbuxiangrenmenyiweideneiyangyanzhong——jinguanliangzhezaizhuyaoguandianshangyiranyoufenqi。buguo,woburenweichutuwenxianbichuanshiwenxiangengzhongyao,yinweilishibenshenshibeilishixingdijiangouchulaide,lishibuduanzaiziwofazhanheziwochuangzao,jiuxiangyigerenbuduanbeizijideyanxingsuozhonggou。maizangle2000duoniandezaoqiwenxianqueshijiangshulemouxieshiluodezhenxiang,danzhangjiuyilaiguangweirenzhideliuxingwenbentongyangcunhuole2000duonian,zheiyiweizhezhongguorendesiweifangshizaoyizaichuanshiwenxiandeyingxiangxiabeisuzaochengxing,jiushishuo,zhongguosixiangdegejubushibeiyishidewenbenershibeiyizhizaishidewenbensuodingxingde,shineixiechuanshiwenxianjuedinglezhongguodejiegouhejingshen。suoyiwoyuanyigengduodicankaochuanshiwenxian,yijiwuzhixingdekaogufaxian,birubeifajuedeyiji(chengshi、jianzhuhejiagudeng),laijieshidongtailishidezhongguo。bingqie,zhidaojintianyemeiyourenhezhengjuzhengmingchuanshiwenxiandezhenshixingburuchutuwenxian,yixiezaoqidelishijilufanerzhengshilechuanshiwenxianzhishaoyuchutuwenxiantongyanggulao。duiyuliangzhechanshengchayideyuanyin,yigejiaoweihelidecaixiangshi,dangnianyuanshiwenxianzaichuanbodeshihou,butongdeshouchaofubenjiuchuxianlexiexuchayi。zhengruwomenkandaode,liangzhongwenbenjianzhiyoushaoliangzijubutong,gujishichaoxiezhetianjiahuoshanjianlemouxieneirong。wodangranbushibiandichutuwenxiandejiazhi,tamenbijingrangwomenrenshidaozhongguobeiyiwangdebufen,danbixuchengren,tamenwulishuomingzaizhangjiulishizhongxingchengdezhongguo。


lingwai,wozhisuoyimeiyouduoyinxifanghanxuejiadexueshuziyuan——duiciyaobiaoshiqianyi——shiyinweiwoshitujianliyizhongjiyuzhongguoyuanbangainiandedulilijie,erbuxiangjiuchanyuxifangyujingxiabeizhonggoudezhongguogainian,houzhebujinbutaifuhezhongguosixiang,haihushileqizhonghenduolilunyiyi——henbaoqian,shuodeguoyuzhibaile。liru,tianxiatixicengbeifeizhengqingquanshiwei“diguochaogongtixi”,zheiyushishichurubijiaoda。tianxiatixizhongjieyugongyuanqian221nian,yuanzaoyusuowei“diguochaogongtixi”demingdaiheqingdai。haiyou,dayitongjunzhuzhidezhongguo(qian221nian-gongyuan1911),shenzhibaokuoxiandaizhongguo,changchanganzhaoxifanggainianbeisishierfeidimiaoshuwei“diguo”。ruguowanxiaodishuo,cileitaoyongjiushi“zhiluweima”。shishishangzhongguoshiyigewufayongxifangdiguohuominzuguojiagainianlaidingyidedaguo,ruhedingyizhongguoduiyuzhongguorenzijiyeshigeweijuewenti。yigefangbianyuxifangrenlijiedezhongguojianhuaxingxianghuoxuwushangdaya,danduiyuxueshuyanjiuquewusuobiyi。dangran,youxiexifangxuezheduizhongguodelijieshishenkede,biruhans fegerjiaoshouzhunquedifaxianlezhongguowenhuazhongqueshaozizhuzilvxingdegainian,zheidequeshizhongguosiweizhongdeyanzhongquexian。tanlvdijiang,xifangzhexuejiwodejiaoyiyaoyuanduoyuxifangdezhongguoyanjiu。


chulechayi,zhongxisixiangzhijianyeyouxiejuyouxueshuyiyideqiaoheshili。biru,zaoqizhongguode“zhizhe”gongsunlong,taduizhengzhizhexuebuganxingqu,zaineigeshidaishigeguairen。zai《zhiwulun》kaipian,taxiedao: “wumofeizhi,erzhifeizhi”。wocongzhongdudaolefenxizhexuedexuqu。haiyouzaoqidezhanlvesixiangjiasunzi,fenxile“zhijizhibi”wenti,zheisihushiwodudaodezuizaoyishidao“gongtongzhishi”gainiandeboyilunlijie。yihandeshi,cileiyouxueshujiazhidewentijihucongweibeiyinrudao“zhongguoyanjiu”zhong。


xianzailaihuidaninzuiqiangjingdewenti,jibbshixunguanwangtianxialilunzhong“isyuoughtzhifendexiaojie”。congxiumoneili,womenlejiedaoyingran(ought to be)wufacongshiran(to be)zhongtuidaochulai。wofeichangxihuanzheigeguandian,dantajinjinduizhishilunhuokexuewentiyouxiao,erduixingershangwentikongpawuxiao。zhishaoyoulianggeshilichaoyuelezheigequfen: yigelizishishangdi,tachuangzaoleziran(physis)huowanwu,duishangdilaishuo,isyuoughtshitongyide,tajinpingjueduiyizhijikechuangzaoshizai,yushi,tadelunlixue、meixue、luojihezhishidoushitongyide,yiqiedoudengtongyutadeyizhi;diergelizishirenlei,jinguanrendechuangzaoyushangdidechuangzaoxiangbiweibuzudao,danrenzailishihewenmingdechuangzaoshangfenxiangleshangdidechuangzaoxingguanghui,yuqisuoweijuyoumouzhongtonggouxing,jiisyuoughtzairenleifamingdezhidu、lunli、zhengzhihelishizhongtongyangheerweiyi。dangran,renleideyizhibunengzhijiehuaweishizai,danyounenglixuanzeneixiequeshishi(is)kenengdeyingranxuanxiang(ought)。yinci,yizhongnenggoujieshirenleixingweidecunzailunbidingtongshishi“chuangshilun”(creationology)——qingyuanliangwoshengzaolezheigeqiguaideshuyu——yisishi,isyuoughtzairenweichuangzaozhongshitongyide,zhishizaizhishilunzhongcaifenlieweilianggewenti,yinweizhishiyudaolezhuguanxingzhiwaideshizai。nengfoushuo,cunzailunyuxingershangxuezongshifumeide(enchanting),erzhishilunhekexuezeshiqumeide(disenchanting)?liangzhedoushibiyaode,danyaogenjuwentidexingzhilaijuedingxuanzeshiyongzhishihaishixingershangxue。


BB视讯官网赵汀阳的“天下”问题

孙向晨


从历史角度看,“天下”是一个未被实现的理念。从春秋时期开始,中国才出现比较清楚的历史记录,那时周朝已经式微,变成了东周。在那段时间里,诸侯国之间发生了数不清的战争。事实上我们没有足够史料来重构“天下”时代,更多地像是儒家的一个理想。西周的历史或许是天下时期,但太模糊了,而且时间也不长,仅持续了275年。“天下”的理想太过脆弱,很快就崩溃了。如以持续时间而论,罗马帝国与天下相比更为持久,治理更有成效。春秋战国时期可以视为天下走向衰败,同时也是更稳固的国家逐渐被建立的过程。正如赵汀阳所讲,秦汉时期实行的是“国家政治”,是借“天下”之名的专制主义[5]。古典天下思想的逻辑残余保存在中国经典之中,尤其在孔子对周礼的推崇的文本中,但儒家的理想从未实现过。“天下”只是一个传说,尽管历史中不乏以之为名的口实。


jibianzaigudaixiangduiduliqiefengbidehuanjingzhong,“tianxia”yemeinengshixian。“tianxia”suiranzaibenxingshangjuyouwuwaidepinge,danshijishangfanyingdeyijiushigetiyuquantideguanxi。gudaishijiesuiranbucunzaixiandaiyiyishangdegeti,danmeigezhuhouguodoukeyibeishiweiyigedulide“danyuan”(unit)。xiandaide“individual”deluojitongyangkeyishiyongyugudaizhuhouguo。meiyige“individual”douyouduliqiefenlideziranqingxiang,yizhiyuhuobusizaigoujianjiyugerendeguojiazhihou,budebuzai《liweitan》dejielunchufujiayitiaoziranfa: youyuzhuquanzaihepingshiqibaoweilenindequanli,neimezaizhanzhengshi,ninyebixubaoweinindeguojia。zheishi“huobusikunjing”,yeshixiandaigerenzhuyidekunjing。xiangxunziyiyang,sibinnuosharenweisuiranhezuoduirenleilaishuoshi“shengjiude”(genetic),danrenmenquehennanchengweiyige“zhengti”;jiezhe,lusuode“gongyi”chuxianle,tigongleyizhongzhengtiweidu。raner,“gongyi”bujiubianchengweilexiandaizhuanzhizhuyidewenchuang,zheishijiyuqinchaodetongzhiluojibumouerhe。zaijiexialaide2000nian,qinhande“tianxia”(tongshiyeshiguojia),jiuruzhaotingyangzaishuzhongfanfufenxiguode,anhele“zhuanzhizhuyi”dechongdong。yinci,jinguan“tianxia”youqilixiangzhuyideweidu,dantadexianshikongpaqueshigengweizhuanzhide。


 赵汀阳


ganxienindeneirongfengfudedianping。zhouchaoshifoukeyizuoweitianxiatixidefanli,shangwudinglun,dankendingshiyigeshili。zhouchaodelishijiujingshizenyangde,duiyutianxialilunbingbuneimezhongyao。zhexuedeyiyizaiyuchuanchenghefazhanweidadegainianheyuanli,erfeikaozhenglishizhenxiang,neishilishixuejiadegongzuo。


woxinrengudaiwenxiansuojizaidezhouchaolishi,yinweineishirenshineiduangushideweiyiziyuan。zhouchaodelishiyibeizhengshishicongzhouchuanglizhichubiankaishijilude,suiranzaiqihoujibainianjianjinglilediushi、xiugaihebianzuan,dansuoshengxiadewenxiankendingshichaoguole2000niandeguwenxian。youyijianshiwuyongzhiyi,zhouchaofaminglewuwaidetianxiagainian,zheigelilungainianweizhengzhishedingleshijiezhixudemubiao;lingyigeshishishi,zhouchaoshejileyutianxiagainianxiangpeideshijiexitong,youyigeshijiezhongxin(wangji)yuxuduofushuguo(zhuhou)gongtongzuchengdewangluojiegou。zheishiyigetiancaidefaming,suiranbuwanshan,xianranxuyaozhongdagaijincainengshiyongyuweilaishijie。wobixuchengren,tianxialilundexuduoguannianyugudaiqingkuangyouchaju,danwulunruhe,zhoudetianxiagainianshililunqidian,jilewoguanjianqifa。erqietianxialilunbenlaijiubushilishilunshu,zhishiyoushiliaodeliluneryi。youdexifangxuezhezhiyizhouchaorenshifouzhendexiangchuguorucixianjin、rucixiandaidelilunshi,woshihuaxianggao,tianxialilunshiwodefaming,dantianxiagainiandequeshizhoudechuangzao,shishishierfeiwenxue。dangran,ninkeyishuozhouchaocongweishixianguotatichudetianxialinian,yinweitadetongzhiquyushenzhixiaoyuxiandaizhongguo。dantianxiagainiansuoyunhandeyuanze、mubiaohejiegou,duiyuliluneryan,bitadeshijianchengjiuzhongyaodeduo。


bbshixunguanwangzhouchaotianxiajiujingchixuleduojiu,woyunindekanfayoudianbutong。suiranzhoudeshijitongzhijinweichile275nian,dantianxiazhengzhimoshiqueyanxule800nian,zhidaoqinshihuangjianlilexintizhicaisuanjieshu。chunqiuzhanguoshiqi,neixieqiangshengdezhuhouguochengweiyishizhibazhu,dantamendouweicengxiangguoyaojianlixinzhidu,fanerzhishishituchengweitianxiazhixinzhu,jinguandoumeiyouchenggong。tamendeshibaiyuanyuquefahuodepubianminxinde“shengde”。zaoqizhongguoyouyigezhengzhichuantong,tianmingdezigeyaoyouweidadexinglaiqueren。beidanning(daniel bell)jiangzheizhongzhengzhijizhizongjiewei“xiannengzhengzhi”(meritocracy),butongyuminzhongzhengzhi(democracy)。youyidianzhideyiti,zuizhongyaodedexinghaibushigerenpinde,ershiduishehuiyuwenmingzuochuyiyizhongdadechuangzhi,qianzhezhidadaoren,houzhecaidadaosheng。chuanshuozhongdeshanggushengwanghemingchen,yaomeshifaminglezhengzhizhiduhuolile,yaomejiaohuirenmenshiyonghuo、jianzaofangwu、gengzhong、zaochuan、bianzhiyuwang,yaomechuangzaolewenzixitong、shuji、lifadengzhongyaoshiwu。tianxiadegushizouxiangzhongjieshi,qinshihuangbenlaiyexiangyaozhongjiantianxiatixi,dachenlisizuizhongyongyigewufakangjudeliyougaibianletadexiangfa: yigeqiangdadejiquanguojiasuiranbiwuwaitianxiayaoxiao,dantongzhizheshijishangzhangkongdequanliquebitianxiazhizhugengda,yincinenggoubimianzhongdaozhuhoufenliezhengzhandefuzhe。


天下与游戏规则

露易丝·缪勒


我的第一个问题是BB视讯官网关系理性和“孔子改进”(Confucian Improvement),或者说孔子最优(Confucian Optimum),以这些理念为指导的社会合作如何能够产生并保持稳定。在赵汀阳看来,完整的理性有两个组成部分: 个人理性和关系理性。关系理性意图将共在置于首位,将共同利益置于优先地位,它与报复性相反,试图寻求相互伤害的最小化,以及彼此间利益与合作的最大化。我认为将它称作一种合作博弈的策略是恰当的。合作的理念是,通过与他人合作,我们可以获得比自己独自行动所能争取到的更好结果。比方卢梭曾举的例子,猎鹿博弈: 几个人去打猎,每个人都能独自打到一只兔子,但如果想打到一只鹿,他们必须合作,因为谁也不能独自捕获到一头鹿。在博弈论中存在的一个最大问题是,对于个人的最好选择与对于所有人的最好选择如何才能合并在一起?它们究竟是否是可兼容的目标?如果不是,如何能将两者兼容起来?换句话说,如何能够建立最优的合作博弈,使得所有人从中受益?


“kongzigaijin”benshenkongpananyijiejuequebaohezuodewenti: suirantachengnuolehaojieguodezuidahua,danweileyouxiaodiyunxing,womenhaixuyaoquebaosuoyoutarendounengzunzhaoguanxilixingdecelvexingshi。yinci,wodewentishi,yigejiyuguanxilixingdehezuoxitongjiangruhechanshengbingbaochiwending?yourenhuoxuhuirenwei,youzhuyubaochihulihezuotixideweiyifangshishigoujianyigezhongyangzhengquanlaibaozhengguizedeyouxiaoxing。birushuo,zhongyangzhengquanhuichengfameiyigejujuexuanze”kongzigaijin”celvederen。“kongzigaijin”shifouxuyaotongguozheizhongfangshilaihuodewendingxing?leisiyuzhongyangzhengquandedongxishifoushibixude?


buguo,woganjuezhaotingyangzaishuzhongshitutongguoqitabanfalaijiejuexianghubaozhengdewenti。biru,tarenwei“huxiangzhengjiuzuiweijijidibiaodalexianghuliyizuidahuayuanze”[6]。zheishifoushuo,jizhongkongzhibingwubiyao,womenkeyiyikaofeiqiangpoxingdedongji,birulitazhuyi?huozhe,womenshifouyinggaiyijizhongkongzhiweiqishitiaojian,zhihoujixiwangyuyanhuaweilitazhuyi?huozheshifoucunzaimouzhongjizhi——biruduiguanxilixingcelvedezifaxingkaolong——laibaozhengmeigerendehezuoxingwei?zongjieyixia,wodediyigewentishi: “kongzigaijin”xuyaoshenmetiaojiancainengdeyichuxianbingbaochiwending?shifouxuyaozhengzhiquanlideganyu?haishimouzhongxinlibingfu?ruguotuolilewaizaiqiangzhiyulitazhuyi,wendingdehezuoshifounengzifachansheng?


BB视讯官网diergewentishibbshixunguanwangbaorongxing(inclusion)yugongzai(coexistence)ruhegongpingshixiandetiaojian。tianxiadeyigezhuyaolilunfamingshiwuwaiyuanze,yiqiedoubeibaohanzainei。jiadingtayijingbeiwomensuojieshou——woshenzhiganyushuo,henduolaiziguangyideziyouzhuyichuantongzhongdezhexuejiahezhengzhililunjiashijidouhuitongyibutongbanbendewuwaiyuanze,bingqiewomendoutongyizhuiqiuhulidequanqiuhezuoshibiyaoerqiezhongyaode。neime,zuiweijinyaodewentibuzaishiquanqiuhezuoshifoushikeyude,ershizaishenmetiaojianxia,tashikeyude?hezuodegongpingtiaokuanshishenme?lingrenxinshengjingyidegongzaidaodiyoushenmeguiding?


yixiechouxiangdeyuanze,biruhuhuixiaoyongdezuidahua、”kongzigaijin”deng,bingweirangwomenduigongzaidejutishizhitiaojianyouzugoudelejie。zheiqiaqiashiguanjiansuozai: womenruheduandinghezhongtiaojianjuyoushizhishangdegongpingxing?qizhongyigewentishi,haochu(advantage)gairuhedingyi?womenyishenmezuoweijizhunxianlaidingyishenmeshihaochu?wohenxiangzhidaozhaotingyangduizheixiewentishizenmekande。shifoucunzaiyixiegongpinggongzaisuoxudebiyaotiaojian(zai“kongzigaijin”zhiwaide)——wuzhishangde、zhidushangdehuoqitafangmiande?ruguoyou,tamenshishenme?gaikuodishuo,diergewentijiushi: shenmeshigongpingdeyitihuahuogongzaidebiyaotiaojian?zheixiebiyaotiaojianshifounenggouconghezuodeluojizhongtuilichulai?huoshifouxuyaotongguominzhuchengxulaixuanding?


赵汀阳


BB视讯官网wohenganxienintichudezheixiefuyoutiaozhandenanti,tamenrangwoyishidaozijidejuxian。zaici,wokenengbudebuqiuzhuyixiezhishangtanbingdezhexue“huazhao”laihuidanindewentile,ernindeyixieshejishijianxijiedewentikenengzhongjiunanyihuida。


bbshixunguanwangnindediyigewenti。runinsuozhi,wendingdeshehuiguizeyaomelaiziyugaoduchengshudezifaxisu,yaomelaiziyuqiangdaquanweisuozhidingdezhixuhuofalv。qianzhejiyurenmendemorengongtongyishi(tacit consensus),houzheyuanyuzhipeixingdequanli,liangzhejieshushehuiziranerrandefazhanjieguo。yuzhixiangbi,xiandaixingqueshijibuxunchangdemaoxian,xiandaixingshitujiangshehui、renlei、wenmingquanbunarudaolerenzaodefeiziranjihuazhizhong,rangqimengledezizhuxingzhangkongyiqie。“juexingde”fansizhutijiangyiqieziranshengzhangdeshiwudoushiweishifanrenleide、buhelide、bugongzhenghuobugongpingde,yushixiandaixingchengweiyigechixudegeminghuodong,zaizheigeyiyishang,xiandaixingkeweizhongxindingyilerendegainianheshenghuo。danshi,dangwomenxinxiyuxiandaiqudejudachenggongdetongshi,yehuiyishidaotongyangyanzhongdefuzuoyong。dangmeigerendezhutixingbeifuyutongdengdejueduiquanlishi,yiqiewentibiandebukejiele。ruguowodelijiemeiyoucuodehua,xiandaixingbingmeiyouxiangshangdigaobie,yemeiyoufeichuducaixing,ershijiangmeigerendousuzaoweishen,bingjiang“ducaizhi”zhuanyidaolemeigerendejueduiquanlizhizhong。zheiduigerenshihaoshi,queyouyigebeilun: womendouyanejiazhuyuzijitoushangdeducaitongzhi,quehenleyizaigerenquanlisuodingyidebianjieneichengweiyigexiaoducaizhe。rujin,huxiangjingzhengdequanlihequanli、suqiuhexuqiuyijiziyiweishidehuayutixiyijingranggeliede、posuideshehuibukanzhongfu。wobingbushizaipipinggerenquanli——shishishanggerenquanliduimeigerendouhenzhongyao——ershiweixiandaixingdeziwocuobaikunjinggandaoyoulv。


xiandairenduizhengzhiquanweiyouzheqiangliedekongjugan,danxinshiquzhutixingdeziyou。zhengzhiquanweiyoukenengzuochuzuihuaideshiqing,danlingrengangadeshi,minzhongyemeiyouhaodaonaliqu,qishizhengzhiweiquanrenwuzaichengweitongzhizhezhiqianjiushiminzhongdeyiyuan,erxuduominzhongdeyuanwangjiushichengweiweiquanrenwu,tamenshitongyizhongren。kongzihebolatudeguandianzaijintiankendingbushouhuanying(liangrenruguonengjianmian,henkenenghuichengweizhiyou)。wotiqizheiyidianbingfeihuaiguzhiqing,ershishuowomenxuyaofansihaiyoushenmeshigenghaodexuanxiang。zaixiandaitiaojianxia,womenjuebuxuyaozhuanzhiquanli,danwentizaiyu,tongyangbunengjixiwangyuzifadejieguo(biru“zhenzhengyouxiao”deshichang),yenanyijixiwangyuxiandaiminzhuchengxu(bulunshidaiyizhihaishiquanmingongtouzhi),yinweizisidezhongrentongyangkenengzuochufeilixingdexuanze。


BB视讯官网lingwai,jixiwangyulitazhuyikongpayebukekao,zheizhongpinzhibujinhanjian,haiquefazugouderenxing(robust)laijingshougezhongtiaozhan。litazhuyizhekongpayongyuanwufashengchengyigewendingdeshehuizhixusuoxudezugouguimorenqun。nindewentishejileyigejihuwujiedexiandaiwenti,ji,xiandaijiegoulechuantongshehui,quemeinengjianliqizugouwendingdexinshehui。dangran,xiandaishehuizaikaishishishengjibobo,dansuizheshijiantuiyi,tadeneizaimaodunyujiachengweizishenfazhandezuai,erehuadeshichangyubaihuaideminzhuquewufazijiu。huimiejiuzhidubijianlixinzhixuyaorongyideduo。xingkuiwozhishiyigezhishangtanbingdezhexueyanjiuzhe,ruguowoshifuzejianlihaoshehuidezhengzhijia,kongpahuibeijisi。duiyushijianshangdewenti,wobingwuzugoudezhihuilaitichujutiduice。


BB视讯官网jiuliluneryan,woxiangzaiciqiangdiaodeshi,jinliangjiangyiqiekenengshijienarusikaofanwei,zhishaoyaobaohanzuihaoyuzuihuaidejingkuang。zheigebiaozhunrangwomenkanqingchuweishenmeyouxiezhumingdelilun,biruluoersililun,bingmeiyoupubianyouxiaoxing,yinweitazhishiyongyuziyouzhuyizhezuchengdefadashehuizheiyangdeteli,quemeiyounengliqujiejuejiaochakenengshijiezhongdewenti。wobuxinrenweiquanzhidu,yinweitayunhanzheducaideweixian,danyebuxinrenminzhu,yinweiminzhuyibeichongmanhuangyanyuqipiandegonggongyijiansuoguoxieerlunweile“daizhu”(publicracy),jiushishuo,xianchengdemeiyizhongzhidudouyouyanzhongquedian,womenxuyaoquxiangxiangxindezhidu。suoyiwoqiwangyizhongnenggoudadao”kongzigaijin”bingqiejiyuguanxilixingdezhiduanpai,bingqiwangyizhongjiyu“zidaizhihuideminzhu”(smart democracy)deshijiexianfa。suoweizidaizhihuideminzhuji“zhishijiaquanminzhu”,tarangzhishierbujinshidazhonglaicanyutoupiao,ranglixingzhishi(episteme)erbushiyijian(doxa)laijuedingxianfa。qingbuyaowangle,zhijinshangwurenheyigexiancunxianfashijingguoyiqierentongyierjuedingde。wodelijieshi,xianfayingdangshizhengfuyuyiqierenyijiyiqierenyuyiqierendinglideqiyue。youcilaikan,meiyourenheyigexianfahuodelewanmeidehefaxingzhengming。100%detongyishijihubukenengde,yinci,xiangduizuijiejinpubiantongyidezhiduyinggaishilixingjuedingdezhidu。


BB视讯官网ninsuotidediergewentishifenshenke。qingyunxuwojichuyigexiangduichouxiangdexingershanglunzheng。wodequeshitucongrenleidecunzailun“yufa”zhongyanyichugongzaidebiyaotiaojian。jiandandishuo,wodediyibulunzhengshi: yiqiewentidoushiyusixiangde“fouding”gongneng,guigongyuyuyanzhongfoudingci“bu”defaming。being(cunzai)shiyiqiewentideqianti,danbeingbenshenbugouchengzhexuewenti,yinweibbshixunguanwangbeingdeweiyidefenximingtishi“being is being”(cunzaijicunzai),zheishiyiqiewentichuxianzhiqiandechuncuibiranxing,dantabenshenbushiwenti。bbshixunguanwangbeing,ruguoshitushuochurenhechaochuzheigefenximingtideneirong,bidingshixugouleyige“zonghemingti”huoxiaoshuo,suoyiyanjiubeingdexingershangxueshishuobutongde。zhenzhengdewentishicongbecoming(bianzai)kaishide,youbianhuacaiyouwenti。dangrenxuehuishuobudeshihou,zhexuecaideyichuxian。tongguofoudingci,renleifamingle“kenengxing”,jinerfazhanchubbshixunguanwangxuanze、ziyouyuweilaideyishi,yushirenleiweizijizhizaole“zheiyangquzaihaishineiyangquzai”(to be this or to be that)dexuanzenanti,yincicaijiang“ruhecunzai”(to-be)bianchengcunzailunwenti,qijiduanbiaoxianxingshishi“shengcunhaishihuimie”(to be or not to be)。


wodedierbulunzhengzhuanxiangleshicun(existence),jibeingzaichangdeshijikenengxing。haidegeerhenzhengquedijiangcizaishiweizaishizhizai(being-in-the-world),erbushihusaiershidechuyushijiezhiwaidechuncuiwosi。duiyurenlaishuo,quzai(to be)biqiuyongzai(to be for long)。wojiangqishiweiyige“zhun”fenximingti(yinweiyinruleshengmingyouxianxingzheigebuchuncuitiaojian)。jiner,quzai(to be)yiweizheyutarengongzai(to be with others),zheishizimingdeshishi。yinci,zaicunzailunshangjiang,rendecunzai(existence)yigongzai(co-existence)weiqianti,huozheshuo,gongzaixianyucunzai。


disanbulunzhengdeshigongzaidezuijiacelve。weilezaiyutarengongzaidetiaojianxiayongzai,quebaoxianghuanquandefengxianguibiyuanzejiuzailixingdejiazhipaixuzhongzhanyoushouyaodiwei。zheijiubiranxuyao“kongzigaijin”yuanze,jirenherendeliyigaishanbixutongshibirandidaozhimeiyigerendepaleituogaijin。zheizhongjiyuguanxilixingdesikaofangshijiangxianghudiduizuixiaohuadenulizhiyugerenliyizuidahuadezhuiqiuzhishang。


BB视讯官网danzheizhishiyigechunlilunlunzheng,jinjinquedinglelilunshangdechufadian,bingbunengbirantuichuyouxiaodeshijiancelve。“hezuoluoji”zuoweichunlilunshangdelixingyuanze,woyuanyichengrenshituolishijide。renxingheshenghuoqingjingdoutaifuza,bianliangduodaowufalilunhua,yuceshehuibianhuadenandukongpachaoguoyucedizhenhechuanranbing。

BB视讯官网nindejianyihepipingzhengshiwofeichangxuyaode。


若干技术性的疑问

沃尔特· 范库和


BB视讯官网个人理性的局限性,好像不很清楚。一方面,书中宣称,如果理性以追求个人利益最大化为目标,个人之间就难以建立相互信任和稳定共识;另一方面,书中也承认——由于优势策略是有限的——当聪明才智被用尽时,博弈就会达到稳定的策略均衡。这意味着,即便缺乏信任,稳定性也可以存在。另外,个人理性为什么就不能产生信任呢?我想到了麦基(Mackie, Ethics, Ch. 5.4)和高梯尔(Gauthier, Morals by Agreement, p.183)说过: 为了克服囚徒困境以及避免在合作中被排除出局,对于每个人来说,最优的理性选择是采取有节制的最大化(constrained maximization)策略。有节制的最大化者为了获得他人的信任,就只好让自己遵守基本的行为法则,而如果这样的行为是有利可图的,那么,以这种理论为首要教育内容的社会就能够基于个人理性而被BB视讯官网起来。如果以上论证是成立的,那为什么还需要额外增加关系理性?究竟什么是关系理性能做而个人理性做不到的事情?


BB视讯官网haiyoujiushibbshixunguanwanghefaxingdesangecengci,sihucunzaizhexunhuanlunzheng。dagaishizheiyang:


l-1: yizhongguizetixishihefade,ruguomeigerendoutongyi。

BB视讯官网danyouyuzheishibukenengde,yinci⇒


BB视讯官网l-2: yizhongguizetixishihefade,ruguodaduoshurendoutongyi。


BB视讯官网danyouyuminzhuchengxubingbunengbaozhengzuifuhedazhonghegerenliyidexuanxiangbeixuanchu,yinci⇒


l-3: yizhongguizetixishihefade,jindangtanengbiaodaminxin[7]。


BB视讯官网keshi,minxinyiweizheduimeigerendouyoulidelvfahuolunlizhunze,yinerhuibeisuoyourenjieshou。zheiyangdehuajiuhuidaolel-1,bingzaicimianlinyizhitongyidebukenengxingwenti。


zaiwokanlai,congzhongkeyiyinchusigetuilun:


1. zaidaduoshuqingkuangxia,womenzhinengmanzuyuduoshurenzhichideguize。


2. weileshiduoshurenbaozhengdefengxianjiangzhizuidi,meigerenbixuyoucanyujuecezhidingguochengdexingqu。


BB视讯官网3. zaidaguimogongtongtizhongjianlicanyujizhideheshifangshishishangyiminzhu,tanengbaozhengmeigerenzaijingdianyiyishangdezhengzhiziyou。


BB视讯官网4. zaidaxingshehuizhong(zaiyigewuwaideshijieguojiazhonggengshiruci)zongyouyixieshaoshuqunti,tamendemubiaohexinyanghuibeiduoshurendeminzhusuowushi。weileburangshaoshuquntibeishehuipaoqi,youbiyaoyunxuyimin(huozaishijieguojiazhongziyouyidong),tongshiyunxuzaiyigeguojianeibushixingdiyuhuadefalv,jiushishuo,dangbutongdiquderenmenzaimouxieshiqingshangdemubiaohexinyangcunzaibuyizhishi,yigediquyongyitaoguize,lingyigediquyonglingyitaoguize。


BB视讯官网zuihou,nindezhengyigainianshishenme?zai“xintianxiadecidian”yijiede2.2.1,zhengyigainiansihuyu”kongzigaijin”youguan。tashengcheng: yigexitongdedaopaleituogaijindetongshi,yebixubaozhengmeigerendoushixianpaleituogaijin。duiciwoyouyixieyiwen: paleituogaijinbunengdaibiaozhengyibiaozhun,yinweishenzhinulizhiyekeyiyoupaleituogaijin。meigerendoushixianpaleituogaijinyouyiweizheshenme?qici,kongzidekouhao“jiyulierliren,jiyudaerdaren”yebunengbirandaochuzhengyi。yigezibenjiayekeyitongguoweibierentigongjiuyeheshourulaishixiantademubiao,danzheimeiyoushizibenzhuyishehuibiandegongzheng。haiyou,duikongzidezhengyiyuanzedezhengmingshishenme?qijibenguandiansihushi,meizhongshiwudoutongguobaochiyidingdepinghengcaideyicunzai。zhaozheiyangshuo,zhaoguruozhedeyuanyinbingbushichuyupingdenglinian,ershiweilejianlihulixitonglaiweichipingheng,yishimeigerendoudeyishengcun[8]。raner,shengcun、xianghuliyiyijixitongwendingxingsihushihenruoyehenmohudebiaozhun,tamenkeyitongguobutongdetujingdedaomanzu。zuoweicunzailunyuanlidepinghenggainianshifouzuyixiandingdijichutedingdefenpeizhixu?


赵汀阳


BB视讯官网ganxieninzhibenyaodianyouchongmantiaozhandewenti。wolaishizhejieshi。


BB视讯官网guanxilixingdeyoushishinenggoupaichuzuichakenengxing,jibuliyugongcundezhanzhenghediduicelve。zheigewentiyezhengshigerenlixingderuodian。rangwomenlaifenxiyixia,ruguobiaodaweijianlvedemoshi,gerenlixingkenengdailaisanzhongjieguo: (1)1+1=2。yisishi,meigecanyuzhedoudedaolegongpinggongzhengdeliyifenpei。suiranhao,danjihubukeneng,yinweimeiyounageyouxiguizeduimeigerendoushiwanquangongpinggongzhengde;(2)1-1=0。zheiyiweizhetongguiyujinhuoliangbaijushangdediduixingwei;(3)2+0=2。yisishiyingzhetongchi(tongchiyoudiankuazhangle,shijishangkenengshidachi,biru1.8+0.2=2)。yuzhibutong,guanxilixingshitushixian1+1=3。zheizaishuxueshangshihuangmiude,danzaicunzailunzhongqueshikenengde。tashuomingdeshi,ruguonengjianggerenlixingnanyidadaodegongxiangxingfuzuidahua,zheizhongjijideguanxijiunenggouchuangzaochaochugerensuodedeewaishouhui。birushuo,xiangaisuodailaidegongxiangxingfumingxianchaochule“gongpinggongzheng”deliyifenpei。zheigeliziyoudiantaoqiao,neimekeyihuanchenggengchangjiandeyouyihuohuhuihezuo,biruchongfenhuxindehezuobujinnenggoubajiaoyichengbenjiandidaojihuweiling,haiketongguohuzhuerzengjiagengduodefazhanjihui。zuizhongyaodeshi,guanxilixingpaichu1-1=0huozhe2+0=2zheileilingrenshiwangdeqingxing。zaiguanxilixingzhong,meigerendexingfudoushigongtongguanxidehanshuzhi。bijiaoleguandeshexiangshi,tongguo”kongzigaijin”dezhiduanpai,meigerendoujianghuibidanchunshiyonggerenlixinghuodegengduoxingfu,zhishaogengduoshouyi。


jiandanzongjieyixia,shouxian,guanxilixingdezuidayoushishipaichuzhanzhenghechongtu,yejiupaichulezuihuaikenengxing;qici,huhuiguanxikeyifazhanchuxunhuanxingde“liwu”zhidu,baokuowuzhishanghuojingshenshangdeliwu。jiyuguanxilixingde“liwu”bingfeichuyucibeihuolianmindecishanxingwei,ershikaolvdaozuiyoujieguohezuixiaojiaoyichengbenerzuochudehuhuijilihuojishidehuxiangbangzhu。geleibo(david graeber)zai《zhai: diyige5000nian》yishuzhongtaolundao,zuoweixunhuan“zhai”deliwuguanxizuizaojianlilewenmingyurenwenzhidudehexinyaosu。zheigerenleixuedefaxianyukongzizhuzhangdezuoweirenxingjichuderen-yixunhuanxianghuying。rentongchangbeicuxindifanyiweibenevolence(renci),shijishangrendelilunyiyishi: (renyiliangrenzhijiande)huxiangguanqie。eryidelilunyiyishi“rendeyiwu”(human obligations),erbushitongchangyichengde“righteousness”(zhengzhi)。


wolaishijuyixieguanxilixingdelizi,danlinshixiangdaodeyexubushizuiqiadangdelizi: (1)zaichuantongzhongguodexiangcunshehuizhong,linlihuibicibangzhejianzaofangwudejiegouhewugaierbusuoqufeiyong;(2)dangnongzuowuchengshushi,weilebuwushijie,linjuhuilunliuhuxiangbangmangshouge,tongyangbujibaochou,yebujijiaosheishouyiduolehaishishaole;(3)nianqingrenjiehun,pengyoumenhuiyisuilifangshijixinrenqian,zizhutamengoumaishenghuobixudewupin。buguozheixieshiqingjibenshangshuyuguoqushi,zicongshangshiji90niandaizibenzhuyikaishizaizhongguoshengxing,xunhuanliwudechuantongyizhujianxiaoshi,beirenweishigerenziyoudefudan。xunhuanliwudeyaodianshi,tabujiandeshiduichenghuojunhengde,huiliweibiyoutongdengjiazhi,keduokeshao,liwudemudeshijiangouqinmiguanxi,zhuyaobushiwanchengyixiangjingjijiaoyi,dangranshijishangfahuilejingjizuoyong。huhuiguanxixianranyouzhuyujiangdimeigerendefengxianchengben。xunhuanliwujiyu“renyi”(yubaozhengzijiliyiderenquanxingchengduibi),yiweizhe,zuorenjifenxiang(yufengexingchengduibi[9])。zheishuominglezaixingershangxuejibenshedingshangdechayi: renshiyouguanxisuosuzaode,erbushigezidulidegerenzijijuedingde。


xianzaihuidanindediergewenti。wobixuchengren,wodejibenjiashedequecunzaizhexunhuanlunzheng。yiqianwomixinluoji,henpaxianruxunhuanlunzheng,houlaibupale,yinweifaxianxunhuanlunzhengkenengshizhexuelilunnanyibimiandexianxiang,erqieweibishicuowu。xunhuanlunzhengzailuojizhongkendingbunengjieshou,ranerxianshibushiyouluojizuchengde。luojishishuxuedefaze,quebushishenghuodefaze。luojizhiyouyiweishijian,erxianshizeyouduoweidudeshijian,jiuxiangboerhesisuoxingrongde“shijiandefencha”。ruguoyigezhexuelilunyixianshiweitiaojian,neimehenkenengzaijibenguandianjiqianti、jiashehuodingyizhongcunzaizhexunhuanlunzheng。qishijibianshiyigeshuxuexitongyekeyizaijichugainianshangcunzaixunhuanjieshi,biruxierbote(david hilbert)jingmiaodejihexuelilun,jushuotadexitongjiyuxunhuandingyidejibengainianyincibaituoleoujilidechuantongsuoyilaidesuoweizimingdezhiguanjieshi,zimingxingshibuwanmeidezhengju。


BB视讯官网ninshuodemeicuo,minxindequeshigewenti,shigeweibeiqingxijiedingdechuantonggainian,tadehanyixianglusuodegongyiyiyangmohu。zaiwodeyujingzhong,minxinyiweizheduirenmenpubianyouhaochudeshiwujiunenggouhuodepubianjieshou。henbaoqian,zheirengranshimohude。danyouyidiankeyimingque,minxinsuoxiangyuzhongrensuoyuyousuobutong。birujiaoshishituchuanshoujixueshenghaodezhishi,queweibishixueshengxiangxuede。xianran,yuqiu(wants)youkenengbeilixuyao(needs)。woduiminzhudeyilvyezaici,minzhujiyurenmenzhisuoyu,keshi“haoshiwu”shuliangyouxian,yuanshaoyurenmendeyuqiu,manzubulerenmenyiquanlizhimingtichudehefasuqiu。ruguogensuidaduoshurendeyuwang,shijiezhongjiangxianrukujieyuhuimie。nenggouzhengjiushijiebingqiebaozhengsuoyourenshengcundeshilixing,erbushigongzhongyijian。minzhurujintuihuawei“daizhu”(publicracy),buzaishizhenminzhule,suoyiwochangshizaililunshangxunzhaoyizhongyouzugounenglifangzhijitifeilixingde“zidaizhihuideminzhu”。


bbshixunguanwangnindedisangewenti。duikongziyuanzedelijierongyibeiliuxingdeyifasuowudao,gengzhunquedefanyiyingdangshi“to be established iff let others established, to be improved iff  let others improved”(jiyulierliren,jiyudaerdaren)。wojiangzheigeyuanzejinyibuyanhuawei“kongzigaijin”。ninhenzhengquedizhichu,jibianshi“meigerendouhuodepaleituogaijin”,yeweibinenggoubaozhengyigewanquangongzhengdeshehui。wocaininxiangdaolepingdengwenti。xuduodangdaizhexuejiajipingdenggainiantianjialetaiduoneirong,pingdenggainianyijingguoyuyongzhong,xianzaisihuyijingbuganshuonayizhongshiqingbuyinggaipingdengle,danzheifanerbapingdengbianchengleduozhonghuxiangchongtudemubiao。xianzaikongpaxuyaobapingdengcongxianghumaodunyinernanyishixiandedaliangsuqiuzhongzhengjiuchulai,fouzefanernayizhongpingdengdoushixianbule。womenbubiqiwang”kongzigaijin”nenggouchanshengyigewanmeigongzhenghuoquanmianpingdengdeshehui,”kongzigaijin”meiyouneimedadenengliang,buguowojianchirenwei,bijiaoeryan,”kongzigaijin”haoguoqitagezhongfuligaijinfangan,wulunshipaleituogaijinhaishikaerduo-xikesixiaolv(kaldor-hicks efficiency)。


lingwogandaodanyoudeshi,dangdaililunchenniyuzhengzhizhengque,chenjinzaixiandaixingde“mitang”zhongdewomenkongpananyiyishidaotasuoyunhandeyanzhongqianzaiweixie。ziwochongni(self-spoiled)dexiandaililunquefaguangpudeshiyingxing,meiyoukaolvzugouduodekenengwenti,nanyishengrenweilaidetiaozhan。yijianhaoshiruguotaihaojiuyoukenenghaodaobuxianshi,biru,pingdengzhiyouzaihehulixingbingqiekexingdeqiantixiacaihuichengweizhenzhengdehaoshi,jiushishuo,pingdengbunengzhikaolvlunliyaoqiu,haixuyaokaolvshijiedecunzailunzhuangtai,baokuojingjitiaojian。shunbianyishuo,shangdikongpabuxuyaolunlixue,tazhipingjiexiangxianglihemeixuejiukeyichuangzaoshijie,huozhetalingyouyitaowomenbunenglijiedechaoyanlunlixue,ertadechaoyanlunlixuehenkenengyumeixueshitongyide,rutongweitegensitansuoshuode。


对天下理论的评论

斯蒂凡·戈思帕


赵汀阳论证说,关系理性不仅是我们的需求,而且在理性上也是生存需要。赵声称,以私利最大化为内涵的个人理性观念不足以解释理性概念。一个行为,如果仅仅对个人利益的最大化进行理性算计,并不能被证明是理性的,相反,只有把他人的理性回应纳入计算,他的行为才称得上是理性的。无人能在这个世界上独存,每个行为都会影响到他人,被影响的利益相关者会以这样或那样的方式做出回应。既然所有行为都在一方面影响到他人,另一方面也承受着对影响的回应,因此双方都要考虑行为的后果。仅当没有他人干涉并改变其可能结果的危险时,一个行为才被视为是最为理想的理性行为,因而行为者需要在一开始便将所有受影响的人的利益考虑在内,只有这样,个人行为才是充分理性的。因此,赵的结论是,个人理性只有当它能够必然导出集体理性才是真正理性的[10]。一个人必须理性地考虑个人与他人之间的交互关系,个人理性在逻辑上要求转变和发展为集体理性。根据赵的说法,只有借助能够在交互关系中依然普遍有效的广义上的集体理性观念,人类作为一个整体才能够解决合作中的挑战。这个重要的洞见——在我看来——与广义上的理性选择理论是一致的。由于赵将我们的同时作为个人和集体的生活看作是“重复博弈”(iterative games),个人理性的确能够导向集体理性。然而赵又认为哈贝马斯的交往理性过于理想化了。这就有了一个疑问: 赵设想的理性到底怎样才能具有集体性的?理性考量究竟是从个人视角出发,还是像集体代理人那样从整体考虑的集体视角出发?


BB视讯官网zhaode“kongzigaijin”henhao,keshitongyangyehenlixianghua。jiashesuoyoudecanyuzhedounengzhanxianchuzugouzhangshiduandelixingsikao,tamenqueshihuixunqiuyizhongyusuoyouxiangguanrenyizhitongyideqiyue。danzheirengranbuhuiziranerrandiguanqiedaosuoyoucanyuzhedepingdenghehuxiangzunzhong。ruguoshilibujun,yizhiyuyigechengyuankeyizaixiangdangzhangshijianneitongzhihezhipeiqitachengyuan,neime,weichizheizhongtongzhiguanxijiuhuichengweineigeyoushichengyuandelixingxuanze。ruguozheizhongtongzhiguanxibeigaoxiaodeyishixingtaiyongsishierfeidezhengdangxingjiayiyangai,neimejingmingdetongzhizhejiuduineixieweitaodezijideyidianliyierqucongtongzhizhederenyongyouzhebupingdengdezhipeiquan。zheizhongqingxingjiukongpahennanshuoshiwanquanpubianlingrenmanyidigaijinlesuoyourendeliyi。”kongzigaijin”wuyishiduipaleituogaijindeyizhonggaijin,houzhedeyaoqiutairuole,juyoupubianxingde”kongzigaijin”queshigengyou,danyupaleituogaijinyiyangyougeleisiwenti,tatongyangqueshaodaoyishangdebirantiaojianlaiquebaotayaomeshiduisuoyourendepingdenggaishan,yaomenenggoujiangsuoyourengaishandaopingdengdefuzhishuiping。


bulunzuoweizhengzhigainiande“tianxia”kanshangquduomeyouren,womendoubuyingdangzaizhengzhishangguoyutianzhen。tianxiashizhuisuzhikongzisixiangdegulaogainian,jianlizaimeidelunlidejichushang。kongzidemeidelunliyougeyibanxingdeyidian,tadedengjizhijiadingle: fuqinzuiqingchuzenyangzuoshiduijiazuzuihaodeshiqing,leisidi,zhengzhiquanweizuiqingchuzenyangzuoshiduibaixingzuihaodeshiqing。yushirujiayaoqiutongzhizheyingdangjiangbaixingdeyuanwangkaolvzainei,bingqiemanzutamen,keshijiuxiangduidaijiazuzhongdexiaohai。womenhennanquedingneixiefucongzheshifouyouzugoudesixiangshuipingheshijianshangdedulirenshilaipanduanfuqinshifoushiyigehaodelingdaozhe。ranerlingyifangmian,ruguorenminzhendeyouzugoudezhishi,congyikaishihaiyoushenmebiyaoqufucongzhengzhiquanwei?kongzisixiangzhongdedengjizhiyuansuyushelezaizhishihemeideshangdebupingdeng,tashiyunhanzairujiasiweifangshizhongdeyigezhiguanzhongyaodezuchengbufen——duiwolaishuo,zheitongshiyeshishifenyanzhongdewenti。


赵汀阳


feichangganxieninfuyouqifadepinglunhewenti。


wobingbuzhuzhangyongguanxilixinglaitidaigerenlixing,ershishitujiangguanxilixingzuoweiyigexinyuansunarudaolixingdefanchouzhizhong,shideguanxilixingyugerenlixingzailixingdeliebiaozhongbingzhicunzai,liangzhedoubukehuoque。kangdedingyilelixing(reason)delianggezuchengbufen: chuncuilixingyushijianlixing。zaicizhihou,jingjixue、zhengzhixueyijiboyilunquejiangshijianlixingzhaihuazaigerenlixing(individual rationality)fanweinei,erqiebadaodeyinsucongzhongbolichulai,bianchengdanchunsuanjixingdegerenlixing。zheiyangdelilunbuzuyijianliyigehaoshehui,yinciwoshituzhongxindingyishijianlixing,danbushihuidaokangde。daodehuadeshijianlixingliliangtairuo,nanyiduifudaduoshudeshijichangjing,baokuozhengzhide、jingjideyijirichangshenghuodewenti。


BB视讯官网shouxian,kangdesuoyaoqiudewutiaojiandedaodelixingshibuqieshijide,zaishehuidedaduoshuqingkuangxiadounanyiweizhen,suoyixuyaozhuanerzhongxinkaolvyoutiaojiandelixing。qici,wanzhengdeshijianlixinggainianzhishaobaohansanzhonglixing: gerenlixing、jitilixing、guanxilixing。yexuhaikeyijiashanghabeimasitichudejiaowanglixing,danjiaowanglixingsihushigerenlixingzaijiaowangqingjingyueshuxiadeyingyong,quefaduliyiyi,zanqiebusuanzainei。sanzhonglixingbiciduli,wufaxianghuhaiyuanhuobeitidai,suoyiwobuhuiyongguanxilixinglaitihuangerenlixing,yebunengranggerenlixingbianchengjitilixing。danwoqueshirenwei,gerenlixingyuanbuzuyijichushenghuowentidedaan,jitilixingshigongtongtijuecesuobixude,erguanxilixingzeshijiejuechongtuhuodiduixingweisuobixudelixing,yonglaipinghenggerenlixingdezisi。


BB视讯官网ninhenzhengquedizhichujitilixingshicongweijiejuedewenti,deque,tabushigongyi,yebushituantideguandian。zaijingjixuehezhengzhixuezhong,jitilixingbeirenweishigerenlixingdejiazong。danlingrenshiwangdeshishishi,gerenlixingdejiazongbunengbiranchanshengjitilixing——bujinweibishilixingde,shenzhiwangwangshifeilixingde。lingwai,huaiyoujingyidishuo,jibianshihabeimasidelixingshangyiyejinnengbaipingweixiaodewujiehemaodun,ernanyijiejuewenmingchongtuhuozongjiaoduilizhileidedawenti,yinweiyanzhongchongtubaoludebushisi(minds)defenqi,ershixin(hearts)dehonggou。bujiangliderenxinwentixianxianlegerenlixinghelixingshangyidejuxianxing。jianyanzhi,gerenlixingderuodianyuanzitadeziwozhuyihegerenzhutixingsuoxiandingdedanyishijiao。wohenzantongguxilarenxinrenzhishishengguoyijiandezuofa,keshixiandaisixiangchangchanghunxiaozhishiyuzhengzhihuozhishiyuquanlidewenti。guanxilixingyinggaiyouzhuyutiaochuziwozhuyihedazhongzhuyidexianjing。guanxilixingyiweizhewomenxuyaojiangshiqingfangzhizaiyuyiqierendeyiqiekenengguanxizhonglaikandai。birushuo,aishiyizhongguanxierbushiyigeyijianhuoyiyuan。renhekenengshenghuodouzhinengcunzaiyuguanxizhizhong。


nintidaozhipeixingquanlikenengcaiqudelixingcelvesuoyunhandeweixian,wowanquantongyinindekanfa。yiweichusedezhongguozuojia,liucixin,zaitadekehuanxiaoshuo《santi》zhongtichuyigelingrenbuandewenti: ruguochongmanwaixingwenmingdeyuzhoushiyigelingdaodedeshehui,jiyigejiduandehuobusiqingjing,womengairuheyingdui?woxiangshuo,daodehelunlishirenjianqiji,tamenzhicunzaiyurenrenshiruozhedeshehuizhong。nicaishuodedui,zhiyouruozhecaixuyaodaode。ganxieshangdirangrenrendoushiruozhe,zheishirenleide“cunzailunyunqi”。zhengyuanyuci,renleicainengfazhanchuwenming,tebieshilixing,laiduikangzhuanzhiqiangquan。


“kongzigaijin”duimeigerendouyouyi,danbuyiweizhetanengshimeigerendoudadao“xiangtongshuipingdefuzhi”zheiyangdegaoyaoqiu。erqieyiqierenzaiyiqieshiqingshangdepingdengkenenghuidaozhi“wenmingdereji”——jinguanyuzhourejishuoshangweihuodezuizhongdezhengming,dantazaililunshangshigejingshi,tixingwomenbuyaoduipingdenghuaiyouguofendereqing,tajiuxiangtianmideduyao,zaimanzumeigerendetongshiyekenenghuimiewenming。zhongguoyougeguxunshuo: “weiqifeiqi”。gengjuxianshigande”kongzigaijin”zhishiyouxiwangbimiangerenzhuyizaochengdewenti,baokuoqiutukunjing、dabianchewenti、gongdibeijuyijifangongdibeiju,dantabunengbaozhengmeigerendoudedaotongdengdexingfu。tianxiatixibingbuxunuoyigesuoyourenzouxiangzhifudewutuobang,ershiqiwangyigekeshixiandechongmanhepingyugongxiangdegongtuobangshijie。zheidangranbushiwanmeideshijie,danwanmeibenshenjiushiyizhongweixian。genju“buwanmeizhuyi”,yigewanmeideshiwuhuiyinweiwanmeiercuiruo。


wohaixiangshuo,wotebietongyininzhichuderujialunlizhongcunzaideyanzhongwenti,youqishidengjizhi。wozaizhongxingousitianxiatixishidegongzuozhiyibianshitichujiutianxialilunzhongdedengjizhiyuzhongxinbaquan。bingqieyeshitubimianranglilunlunweidaodezhuzhang,yinweitianxiazhongjiushigezhengzhigainianerduliyulunlipanduan。


世界的世界性

格拉汉姆·帕克斯


读到你说天下是“一个具有世界性的世界”(a world of worldness)还有“世界的世界化”(a worldlization of the world),我就在想,这与海德格尔在《存在与时间》中提出的“世界的世界性”(Weltlichkeit der Welt)这个存在论观念之间可以如何联系起来。海德格尔的理论在现代西方哲学传统中很有独创性,当他说到对特殊事物的加总将永远无法达到对“世界”的完整理解时,他的进路就与天下理论的假设颇为亲近。他认为,理解世界必须从生成意义的整体化“参照语境”(Verweisungszusammenhang)出发,从完整的“关系系统”(Relationssystem)出发。在我看来,这似乎与作为政治领域的思想出发点的天下理念不谋而合。

 

 

赵汀阳


ganxienintijihaidegeerdechuangjian。wozai《diyizhexuedezhidian》zheibenbbshixunguanwangxingershangxuedeshuzhongtaolunguotadesixiang。wohenrentongtajiangcunzailunjiaodianluozaizuowei“zaishizhizai”(being-in-the-world)de“cizai”zhishang,zheibutongyuzaishijiezhiwailaiguanchashijiedehusaiershiziwo。woyetongyininshuohaidegeerjiangshijieshiwei“guanxixitong”(relational system)delijiefangshiyuzhongguodexingershangxuechanshenglehenhaodehuying。buguo,womenyaochulidewentibutong。haidegeerzhexuechenggongdijieshilegerendezaishizhizai,quebunengyongyujieshizhengzhiyushehuixingdegongzai(coexistence)。bbshixunguanwanggerenzaishizhizaidelilunhaibushiduirenleishehuigongtongwentidejieda。jiyuci,woshitulijiezhengzhidecunzailunwenti,tongguogongzaiwentiqufaxian“wuwai”yu“pubiangongkenengxing”yuanzedecunzailunhelixing,suoyiwoshizai“weishijieershijie”(a world for the world)deyiyishangqulijieshijiedeshijiexing。


启蒙、民心和尊重

克莉丝汀·纽豪泽尔


在对现代性的单面性进行批判时,赵汀阳的观点似乎与霍克海默及阿多诺的《启蒙辩证法》颇为相近,比如,他同样批评了无脑的消费主义与精神性的缺失。在我的理解中,霍克海默和阿多诺着重从两个方面批判了启蒙运动。为了实现其宏伟计划,扫清所有恐惧背后的理由,启蒙运动试图彻底摧毁所有神话,其中包括那些本应当保留的,即对不可控制的、不可理解的、不可名状而只能敬畏的事物的感觉。另外,他们认为启蒙运动只是一个智识上的运动(intellectual movement),忽略了真正有效的启蒙所需要的物质前提和必要的社会结构。


BB视讯官网suoyiwoxiangwendeshi: shouxian,ruguoxuyaodehua,tianxiashiyaojianlimouzhongquanqiuxingdeshenhua,haishijinjinyigebendihuadeshenhua?shifouxuyaomouzhongshouduanlaiquebaotabenshensuojuyoudelixingbushidanmianxingdeshizhengzhuyilixing?qici,tianxiaxuyaoshenmeyangdewuzhiqianti?sheihuiyongyouzheigeshijie?shengchanshouduanjiangruhefenpei?shouruhuizenyangbiandepingdeng?


BB视讯官网zhaotidaode“minxin”,wobushihenqingchujiujingshishenme,youruhezaiquanqiucengmianhuodeminxin。tasihuduitianxiadeshixianzhiguanzhongyao,yinweitanenggourangyigezhengzhizhiduzaiminzhongxinzhongjuyouhefaxing。youshihouzhaojiangtayugongyilianxiqilai——zheijiuyiweizheyizhongduigezhongjibenjiazhijuyoujiqiangbaorongxingdehuayutixi。neime,shenmeyangdejiegou,zenyangdexingdongzhenenggoutuixingzheiyangdehuayu?tashifouyouqubieyuyingyutongzhixiadezhexuedelingyizhongquanqiuxingzhexuesuogoucheng?zhaohaishuo,minxinshiyigepubianxingdejiazhitixi,yinerhuidedaopubianjieshou。danshi,shenmeyangdejiazhikeyizuodaobujinbeilixingjiena,hainenggoubeisuoyourenderenxinsuojieshou?renquandagaikeyishiyigehouxuanxiang,danzaixianshicengmianshang,zhaohenzhengquedizhichudangqianderenquanxitongyibeilanyong,taduiyuxuduoguojialaishuobingbushiyong(buguozhaoduiluoersidelijieyoudianculule,luoersibijinghaishiqubieleliumangguojiaheshounanshehui)。neime,hezhongchengxunengjiangrenquanzhuanhuaweiminxin,huozhishaojiejinminxin,jinershiqichengweitianxiadejianshijichu?


haiyoubbshixunguanwangzunzhongdewenti。xianghuzunzhongsihushitianxiadezuchengyinsu,qizhongbaokuoduiwenhuayuzongjiaoduoyangxingdezunzhong。zheilicunzaiyigedawenti,duiwolaishuobutaiqingchudeshi,meigerenyingdedepingdengdaodediwei(moral standing)zaitianxiatixizhongjiangruhehuoderending?bingqie,zheizhongdaodediweibaohanduoshaoneirong?shifoubaohanlemeigerendepingdengquanli?ruguoshidehua,jiujingshinaxiequanli?mingquelezheiyidianjiunenggouweizongjiaoyuwenhuaduoyangxingdeneihanhuadingjiexian,zheijianshiqingrujinchangyumouxiedangdaishijianhunweiyitan,biruxingbieqishi、zongjiaozidayuwenhuashiliyan(cultural snobbism)。


dangdaitianxiaqubieyugudaitianxiadeyigeqiantitiaojianshi,renmenyaoqiubeishiweishehuizhongdehuozhishaoshitamenzijideshehuiquanzizhongdepingdengchengyuan。shuzihuajiaowangdaozhileshehuibijiaoyushehuiqufendequanqiuhua。youyuzheigeyuanyin,xiaofanweishequnneidezunzhong,birujiazudehuoguojiade,yijingbuzainengmanzurenmenduipingdengzunzhongdexuqiu。zaizheiyangdeqingxingxia,tianxiajiangruhequebaomeigerendounenggoudedaopingdengdezunzhong?zaiwokanlai,zheisihushiminxindeyigezhongyaofangmian,duitianxiadejianlishifenbiyao。


BB视讯官网haixiangtiqiyigebbshixunguanwangshangyegongsidewenti。zhaozaishuzhongduochupipanlejishuquanlidexingqi,keshiquecongweitijiguoshangyegongsi。zaiwodelijiezhong,gongsishiwomenzheigeshidaizuiqiangdadexingweizhutizhiyi。zai200gezuidajingjitizhong,chaoguo2/3shigongsi。gongsishizuiwanmeidibiaoxianlezaijingzhenghuanjingzhongxunqiuzisiliyidezhutijiegou,sihuyinggaishitianxiatixideduilimian。yinci,cunzailianggewenti: 1. tianxiatixijiangruhezaishangyegongsidezulixiabeituixingchulai?huozhegongsinengfoubeizhuanbianweitianxiatixidezhutuiqi?2. gongsinengfouzaitianxiatixizhongcunzai?ruguoshidehua,tamenjiangruhebeianpaihejiayikongzhi?zaitianxia-guo-jiadejiegouzhongsihumeiyouzhaodaotamendeweizhi。ruguogongsibubeirongxucunzai,daxingdejingjishiyeyoujiangruhebeiyouxiaodibbshixunguanwangqilai?

 

 

赵汀阳


feichangganxienintichudezheixieguanjianwenti。


BB视讯官网bbshixunguanwangqianlianggewenti,woxiangshuodeshi,tianxiatixishiweilejiejueshijiejibiedewentiershexiangde。runinsuozhi,meiyounageshijiejihuoquanqiuxingdewentinenggouzaibendicengmianhuodeyouxiaodekongzhihejiejue。wulunshihewuqi、qihoubianhuahaishiquanqiujingjiweijihejianduankeji(rengongzhinenghejiyingongchengdeng)。yinci,tianxiazhizaichuangzaoyigeshijieshenfen,erbushishuyuzhongguodedifangxingshenfen。tianxialilunkaolvdeshiyigerongnashijieyusuoyourendepubianjianronglilun,mubiaoshiyaodadaoleisiyukangdelilunshexiangdepubianxing。suiran,tianxiashiyigequziyugudaizhongguozhexuedegainian,danbuyiweizhetaweizhongguosuozhuanyou,tichuzheigelilunderenkeyiourandilaizishijiederenhediqu,liezhidunshideng、ruishi、baxizhurucilei。tianxiayinggaishisuoyourengongtongyongyoudewangluotixi,erbushiyoumougeguojiasuonengzhipeide。tianxiatixideteshuxingjiuzaiyutadezhiduxingzhijuedinglesheiyemeiyounenglitongzhitazhe,yincizhinenghezuogongzai。jiaruguanxilixingzhendeluoshiweizhiduanpai,jiujibenshangquxiaolediguozhuyidekenengxing。


wowanquantongyininshuodeqimengbuyingjinxianyuzhishicengmiandeyundong,qishiqimengyundongyilaidesixiangziyuanyijingkujie,yuelaiyuenanyihuiyingdangdaiwentile。bbshixunguanwangtianxiatixisuoxudebiyaowuzhiqianti,woxiangxinzhishaohuibaokuoduozhongxinxingkeji,jihulianwang、rengongzhineng、liangzijishu、kekonghejubian、yijiquanqiutongyonghuobi(kenengshishuzide)dengdeng。zheixiejishuhuiduizhenggeshijieerfeimougeguojiahuodiqudailaiquanmiandegaibian。kejihuizaofuyusuoyouren,danyekenengdailaiyanzhongweihai,suoyiwomenjixuyaojishu,youbixubaochijingti。shiqingzonghuiyouyiwai,biru,yuzaoxiandegujibutong,hulianwangbingmeiyouchengweiyigechongfenminzhuheziyoudexunishehui,xiangfan,tazhongfushenzhiyezaifangdashehuipianjian、gehe、yaoyan、chouhenyijiduikang,zhizaoleyige“houzhenxiang”deshijie,renmendeyinsiheziyouchuyushikekeyibeiqinfandejingdi。rujinwomenhuaizhejudadeqixuheshenshendeyoulvzaidengdairengongzhineng、liangzijisuanjiyujiyinbianjideshidailailin,zheixiejishuchuangzaofulidenengliangjuda,danyenengtingdaoyijishutongzhiweiqishouduandexinzhuanzhidaolaidejiaobusheng。womendangjinshenchuyuzheiyangdejingkuang: jishuyuelaiyuexin,erzhengzhizhixu、zhiduhuotizhiquexiangduiluohou,nanyiyingduixinjishudailaidetiaozhan。yinciwoxiangxin,jishuyueshifazhan,jiuyuexuyaoyigeyuxindetiaozhanjuyoutongdengguimodeshijietixi。tianxiatixishizaizheixietiaozhandeyalixiadelilungouzao,tayuminzuguojiabugouchengchongtu,ershizaiyiyoudeguojiatixizhishangjiashangyigelingyizhongxingzhidexitong,baokuoshijiexianfajiqizhiduanpai。


BB视讯官网yonglusuodegongyilaileibiminxinqueshibuqiadang,wohenhouhuiyinyonglusuo。minxingainianbenlaijiuquefadingyi,dagaishizhinenggoumanzusuoyourendebixuyinerhuodepubiantongyi。minxinshifuhelixingde,bixupindefanweimingxianxiaoyurenmendeyuwangsuoqiu。guoduodemianfeiwucanhuishirenmenbeiguanhuai,laodongyingdangdedaozunzhong。mianfeiwucansihuyurenquancunzaimouzhongguanlian。renquankendingshibiyaodejiazhi,rendeyiwuyetongyangshibiyaodejiazhi,womenxuyaoyirenyilaipinghengrenquan。


qingyunxuwojiurenquanwentiduojieshijiju。wulunlilunshanghaishishijianshang,tianfurenquandeguanniandouyunhanqianzaidezainanxinghouguo。ruguosharenfanbeipanchu7niantuxing,zheishidaodezainanerbushirenquandeshengli,yinweizheiyiweizhewomenyaojieshou7nianlaoyu=1beizishengmingzheiyanghuangtangdesuanfa。wozhichifeichusixing,dantongshijianchirenweiduizuifandechengfayingdangchongfenkaolvdaowugushouhaizhedesunshi,fouzebeihairenderenquanyouruhetixian。yinci,wozhuzhangyi“yufurenquan”tidaiyoulilunloudongdetianfurenquan,huokegaijinrenquangainianshizhigengweijianquan。jiandandishuo,yufurenquanyiweizhe: (1)yongyoutiaojianquanlitidaiwutiaojianquanli;(2)meigerenchushengjiubeiyufuleyiqierenquan;(3)ruguomourenqinfandaobierenderenquan,tadexiangyingrenquanjiushixiao,huozheshuo,ruguomourenfangqilezunzhongtarenderenquandeyiwu,jiushitongzidongfangqitazijidexiangyingrenquan。ninyinggaibunankanchu,yufurenquandezhongdianzaiyuhuifuquanliyuyiwudepinghengguanxi。woxiangxinyiwushenzhishigengguanjianyinsu,yinweiyiwuzailuojishangkeyibirandaochu(entail)renquan,danfanguolaizebuxing,quanlijinzairuodeyiyishangyunhan(imply)yiwu,jizhizai“shizhiyunhan”(material implication)yiyishangyouxiao,yinciquanlibunengbirantuichuyiwu。zaiyiwuhequanlideguanxizhong,renyicaishirenquandeluojijichu。


BB视讯官网nindanxintianxiatixizhongdequanlipingdengwenti,woxiang,zaigerencengmianshang,bixuzunzhongmeigerendeyufurenquan;zaiwenhuacengmianshang,tianxiatixibixuweiyiqiewenhuabaoliuchongfenfazhandekongjian。danpingdenggainianyeshiyigebuqingchudegainian,quefamingquedexianzhixing。birushuo,yifanqishiweimingdezhengzhizhengqueanzhongfuyuleyiqieshiwuyixiangtongdejiazhi,danzaishijishenghuozhong,meiyourenhuiquxiaojiazhipaixu。womentonghenqishi,keshijiazhipaixuyijingyiweizhemouzhongqishi。pingdenggainianyiranshigeyiwen。


nintichudebbshixunguanwanggongsidewentizuiyouyisi,yetebiezhongyao。hencankui,woduigongsiquefayanjiu,dantongyininduigongsideshenkelijie。womeiyouzugounengliyujianzibenzhuyideweilai,danduiweilaiyougexiangxiang——bushiyuyan——suoyouzailishizhonggaodufazhandewenmingjiyinhenkenengdouhuizaiweilaidedaojichenghuofuxing,erqiehenkenengxingchengxianghubuchongdehunhewenming,jiushishuo,wulunzibenzhuyi、shehuizhuyihuoqitazhuyi,qijiyindoubuhuiwanquanxiaoshi。buzhidaohuibuhuizheiyang?


三种世界主义?自由主义,民主和天下

罗宾·西利凯特斯


对世界主义(Cosmopolitanism)的解释有着多种相异的理论进路。众所周知,它的原义是 “世界/宇宙的公民”(源于κόσμος/kosmos,即世界或宇宙,以及πολίτης/politês,即公民)。第一种政治性的世界主义是全球正义世界主义(Global Justice Cosmopolitanism)。它是自由主义的世界主义理论的中心论点。卡尼(Simon Caney)将它称为“司法性的世界主义”(juridical cosmopolitanism),定义为: “我们都是同一世界的公民,因此都应该被包含在一个共同的分配正义体系中”[11]。至于为什么如此,通常有两种答案。第一种指出全球交互系统已经让所有人参与其中并形成了相互依赖。第二个答案强调一切人作为人本身的平等尊严,而民族、阶级与种族都被视为偶然特征,从分配正义的角度来看都是无关变量。另有一种政治性世界主义,称为全球民主世界主义(Global Democracy Cosmopolitanism)。这个理论认为世界需要某种全球政治体系,可能需要一个世界政府,世界议会和世界法庭。全球民主世界主义通常主张联邦制,有着非等级制的分散政权的政治模式,而不是中央化统治的“全球主义”(globalism)[12],从而可以避免康德担心的“最可怕的独裁统治”。


yiwodelijie,zhaotingyangdetianxialilunzhanxianleyigezhenzhengdeshijiezhuyilixiang,tazhuzhangyizhongquanqiuxingdezhixumoshi,jibushiyuanyuminzuguojia,yebushiyuanyuzuoweiquanlizhutideguligeren(zheishixifangchuantongxiadeshijiezhuyijinludeqidian,zaixifangchuantongzhong,yaomeshiguojiazhongxinzhuyi,yaomeshigerenzhuyi)。buguo,haicunzaiyixiejichuxingdewentixuyaotaolun。zaiwokanlai,tianxiadexianmingzhengzhitezhengtuxianlelianggewenti: diyi,zhengzhihefaxing(political legitimacy)helunlizhengdangxing(ethical rightness)zhijiandaodishishenmeguanxi?jiaruqianzhezhuisuihouzhe,zhengzhihefaxingjiubunengsuanzuoyigeyouzheduliguifanhechengxudefanchou,neimetianxiajiangyincishiyigedaodelixiangerbushizhengzhilixiangle。jiezhu“minxin”lailunzhengfanerjinyibuqianghualezheigeyiwen,erbushijichulelingrenxinfudejiejuefangan;dier,lunlizhengdangxing、hexieyijirenleigongtongliyidenggainiandaodishiyousheiyihezhongfangshilaizuozuihoudejieding?jinxingjiedingnandaobujiushiyixiangzhengzhihuodongma?yejiushishuo,dangjinshijiedelunlizhengdangxing、hexieyijirenleigongtongliyiyinggaishishenme——zheishizhenzhengzhengzhixingdeshijiezhuyidehexinwenti——nandaobuzhengshiyigeyoudaijiejuedezhengzhiwenti?zhaotingyangrentong“duoyuanhuadexianshi”——tianxiajishiduozuqunyoushiduowenhuadegongcun——zheiyiweizhetadelilunjinlubidingmianlinyou“shenduduoyuanxing”(deep pluralism)dailaideqianzaizhengzhichongtu。zheizhongchongtuwufatongguoqiuzhuyuguifanxingdecanzhaobiaozhunlaihuodejiejue,birulunlizhengdangxing、hexie、gongtongliyidengdeng,yinweitamendoushishixian(ex ante)beidingyideerduliyuchongtudeshijian,erzhengshikenengfashengdezhengzhichongtuxueruobingzuaileduoyuanhuaxianshidefazhan。qiuzhuyurujiadedengjizhiyujingyingtongzhideguannian——jiyuzhuoyuedezhishihemeide——huoxunenggouweizhaotingyangsuoyongdelilunhelishikuangjiatigongziwoshuoming,danzheizhongshuominghuizaiyicirangtadebaofu——jitigongyigezhenzhengzhengzhixingdewuwaizhixuyuanjing——dadazhekou。jinguantianxiagainianyouzhuyuyindaowomenfazhanchuyizhongduoyangxingerfeitongzhixingdeshijiezhuyi,tianxialilunzaizhongsishijiezhuyideguochengzhongyiranmianlinxuduonanti。

 

 

赵汀阳


BB视讯官网ganxienintichuleshenruyaodiandewenti。


BB视讯官网shouxianworenweitianxiatixisihubunengshiweishijiezhuyi(cosmopolitanism)detongleixiang,jinguanliangzheyouzhebufenzhongdiedexiangxianghuomubiao,tianxiakeyiyushijiezhuyijinxinghuyoushouhuodebijiao,danyoulianggeguanjianchayi: (1)tianxiademubiaobushibasuoyourenbianchengshijiegongmin,jijinjinshuyushijieershiqudifangrentonghuodanchunyirenweishenfende“shijiegongmin”。worenweishijiegongminshigexugougainian,chufeiyuwaixingwenmingxingchengduibi;(2)tianxiabushiyigewuguojiadeshijie,bushichuangliyigeshijieguojia,ershijiangyigexinshijiejiazaijiushijiezhishang,zhizaitianjiayigefugaixingdexintixi。jiushishuo,tianxiabushiyigebeilichuantong、lishiyuguoqudexiandaijihua,yebushihouxiandaishideduiyiqiebiaozhundejiegou。tianxiatixishexiangdeweilaishijiejiangyoulianggezhengzhicengmiangoucheng: tianxiatixiheguojiatixi。guanjianzaiyu,tianxiatixishiyigewangluojiagou,yiguanxierbushiyigetilaidingyizhengzhidanwei,bingqieshitujiejuehekongzhishijieguimodewenti,birushijieheping、wenmingchongtu、hewuqi、qihoubianhua、nengyuanheziyuan、rengongzhineng、jiyinkeji、hulianwang、quanqiujinrong、yiwuyurenquandengyiqieshijieguimodeyiti,bingbuyouweiguojiaduiguoneishiwudecaidingquan。


BB视讯官网bbshixunguanwangzhengzhihefaxingyulunlizhengdangxingzhijiandeguanxi,wobufourentianxiadelunlizhengdangxing,dangengqiangdiaotianxiadezhengzhihelixing,youqikaolvdaoshijieheping、jingjitixihejishuxiaolv。zheiyiweizhezhengzhilixingshitianxiatixideshouyaotezheng,erlunlijiazhizhishifuchanpin。wowanquantongyininshuodelunlituibuchuzhengzhihefaxing。shishishang,tianxiadesange“xianfaxing”gainian,jishijiedeneibuhua、guanxilixinghe”kongzigaijin”,doushizhengzhixingde,shenzhibaokuolejingjixuedekaolv,wanquanduliyulunlisuqiu。lunlisuiranzhongyao,danruninsuoshuo,lunlijiazhibuzuyilunzhengzhengzhihefaxing。


nintidaohexiegainian。jiang“harmony”zuowei“he”defanyiguangweiliuxing,dansihushigewudaoxingdeyifa。zhongguozaoqizhengzhiwenxianzhongde“he”,yisishi“xiehe”,jijianrongxing(compatibility),zhuyaoshejisuoyourenhuoyiqiebangguozaizhengzhishangdejianrongguanxi。lingwai,zaixingershangxueshang,“he”zhideshibutongshiwuzaicunzaishangdejianrongxing。wogerenyuanyijieyonglaibunizidegainianjiangqiyiwei“compossibility”(gongkenengxing),zheigeciqingchubiaodalerenhuoshiwudegongzaikenengxing。yijianrongxinghuogongkenengxinglaidingyidehedegainian,biaodadeshicunzailunshangdezhuangtai,shiyigedanchundelilungainian,bingbudaibiaotedingwenhuadeteshujiazhi。woxiangxinwulunzhengzhihaishilunlidejiazhidoubunengyoumouzhongzhengzhihuolunlilaidingyi,erzuihaonenggougenjucunzailundeliyoulaidingyi,fouzeruninsuoshuode,benshenyoubianchengyizhongzhengzhile。


zuihouwoxiangzaiciganxiemeiyiweijiaoshoudeshenketaolun。henbaoqianwomeiyouzugoudezhihuilaihuiyingmeiyigewenti。


注  释

[1] Hans-Georg Gadamer, Wahrheit und Methode (Tübingen: Mohr, 1975), p. 343. 中译文摘自[德]伽达默尔: 《真理与方法——哲学诠释学的基本特征》,洪汉鼎译,上海: 上海译文出版社,1994年版,第464页。

[2] kant metaphysics of morals vi, 227. zhongyiwencankao《kangdezhuzuoquanji》di6juan,di249ye。

[3] tu weiming: confucian thought: selfhood as creative transformation. albany 1985.

BB视讯官网[4] zhaotingyang: 《tianxiatixi: shijiezhiduzhexuedaolun》,beijing: renmindaxuechubanshe,2011,di1ye。

BB视讯官网[5] shuzhongbingmeiyoujiangqinhanchengwei“zhuanzhizhuyi”,yuanhuashi“qinshihuangjianguoshizhongguozhengzhideyigefenjiexian: gaobietianxiatixiheshijiezhengzhi,kaishileyiguojiazuoweijueduiquanlideguojiazhengzhi”。xiangfan,shuzhongbufenzhiyile“zhuanzhi”deshuofa。canjianzhaotingyang: 《tianxiadedangdaixing: shijiezhixudeshijianyuxiangxiang》,beijing: zhongxinchubanshe,2016nianban,di125ye、di136yejiaozhu。——yizhezhu。

[6] zhaotingyang: 《tianxiadedangdaixing: shijiezhixudeshijianyuxiangxiang》,dewenban,di276ye。

BB视讯官网[7] zhaotingyang: 《tianxiadedangdaixing: shijiezhixudeshijianyuxiangxiang》,dewenban,di41ye。

[8] zheiqishishilaozideyuanze。xiangjian《tianxiadedangdaixing: shijiezhixudeshijianyuxiangxiang》di275ye。——yizhezhu。

BB视讯官网[9] yingyu“geren”(individual)yi“fenge”(to divide)weicigen,ji“bu(in-)+kefenge(divisible)”。——yizhezhu。

[10] zhaotingyang: 《tianxiadedangdaixing: shijiezhixudeshijianyuxiangxiang》,dewenban,di34ye。

[11] caney, simon: cosmopolitanism and justice, in: contemporary debates in political philosophy, ed. thomas christiano & john philip christman, wiley-blackwell 2009, p. 389.

[12] walzer, michael: international society: what is the best we can do?, ethical perspectives, 6 (1999), 3-4, 201-210.