BB视讯官网

jiancedaonindangqianshiyongliulanqibanbenguoyulaojiu,huidaozhiwufazhengchangliulanwangzhan;qingninshiyongdiannaolideqitaliulanqiru: 360、qq、sougouliulanqidejisumoshiliulan,huozheshiyongguge、huohudengliulanqi。

转载丨疫情应对中的科技治国模式

日期: 2019-05-14 撰稿人: 阿尔弗雷德·诺德曼、刘永谋、卡尔·米切姆

bianzhean

BB视讯官网xinguanyiqingquanqiubaofa,zeit onlinechengweiouzhouzhexuejiafabiaoguandianderedianmeiti,deguozhexuejia、yitichu“jixingkexue(technoscience)”lilunzhuchengdeaerfuleide·nuodemanzaigaiwangzhanfabiao“womenkeyitongguochuangzaolilaizhanshengxinguanyiqing”“nimendouzhixiangdangyigegexiaodianma”liangpianwenzhang,tichuyigongminqudong(citizendriven)dekejizhiguomoshilaiyingduiyiqingdeguandian。kejizhiguodezhuzhishiyikexueyuanlihejishufangfalaiyunxingshehui,youqiqiangdiaokexuedizhilishehuigonggongshiwu。

BB视讯官网4yuezhongxunkaishi,nuodemanyaoqingzhongguorenmindaxuezhexueyuanjiaoshouliuyongmouhemeiguozhexuejia、spt(jishuzhexuexuehui)shourenzhuxikaer·miqiemuyiyoujianxingshi,duikangyizhongbutongdekejizhiguomoshijinxingbijiaoxingtaolun。benbaoxiankandengsanrentaolundehexinguandian,benwenyouliuyongmouyichengzhongwen。

微信图片_20200514105316.jpg

BB视讯官网gongminqudongdekejizhiguomoshi

aerfuleide·nuodeman

deguodamushitategongyedaxuejiaoshou

zhongguoheoumeiyingduiyiqingfangshidezhuyaobutongzaiyu: zhongguodemubiaoshinuligenchubingdu,eroumeibaokuodeguodemubiaojinjinshi“rangquxianbianping”,jinulikongzhibingdudechuanransudu,bimianbushoukongzhideganranjizengshideyiliaoxitongbengkui。xifangrenkaolvdebushibixu“ganzou”bingdu,ershiyubingdugongtongshenghuo,dantadechongjiyingkongzhizaigonggongyiliaoxitongfuzaiyunxudefanweizhinei。yidalidexitongchaozaile,erdeguokongzhidehenhao。yimiaoyanfaxuyaohenzhangshijian,bunengyincirangshehuishenghuo“tingbai”。deguokangyidehexinwentishi: ruhenengzaibu“tingbai”shehuishenghuodeqingkuangxiayubingdugongcun。

BB视讯官网xinguanfeiyanquanqiubaofa,rangwomenchuyu“zhenshishijieshiyan”zhizhong。shiyantongchangzaishiyanshidefengbikongjianneijinxing,zaishoukongdetiaojianxiashishiyoumudedeganyu。zhenshishijieshiyanfashengzaishehuizhong,kaishiyuyiwaidetufashijian。cunzailiangzhongbutongtaidu: yizhongshibaxinguanfeiyandangzuo“dahaoliugan”laijiandanduidai,lingyizhongshixunsuzhixingyigeliweihexindekejizhiguocuoshi。zhongguochuqicaiqudeyangegelicuoshi,zaiouzhoubukenengwanquanfuzhi。deguoyecaiquleyixieyouxiaodekejizhiguocuoshi,tongshinuliweichimokeerzonglisuochengde“shehuituanjie”。

BB视讯官网raner,womenkandaodekejizhiguomoshidoushi“zhengfuqudong”(government-driven)de,zaioumeiguojiazhaozhigongzhongbutongchengdudefandui,renmendanxinzhengfuquanliyuejie。youmeiyouqitadekexuanfanganni?dangjinkejifada,shehuijishuzhangzufazhan,“gongminqudong”dekejizhiguoluxianshikenengshixiande。

BB视讯官网jinrideguojingjishilixionghou,fuyouchuangzaoli,erqieyishuzihua,minzhongjubeibushaoxiangguankexuezhishi,renrenjunkechangshifahuigerenchuangzaolilaikangjiyiqing。youqishikeyitongguo“gongminkexue”(citizen science)defangshi,dajiafenxiang、huijuhegaijinkangyizhishi,zhudongyunyongzheixiezhishilaiyingduibingdu。zuijin,deguozhengfuzhengjikangyibanfa,48xiaoshineichaoguo28000mingcanyuzhetijiaolechaoguo1500gexiangfa,mingwei“womenduibingdu”deheikexiangmuchuangjianlexinguanyiqingzhuizongchengxu。

BB视讯官网henduodeguorenyong“gongminkexue”zhishilai“ziwo”yingduibingdu,biruzizhikouzhao、ladacanzhuojuli、cantingbixuyuding,dengdeng。cileishehuijishushigongminzifachuangzaohetuiguangde,xuyaominzhongcanyu(changchangyunyongxinxihewangluojishu)chuangzaoheshijian,erbushiyouzhengfuqiangzhishixing,shuyuxiangguankejizhishidelixingyingyong,binggenjudangdiqingkuangdashangxianmingdedifangxingluoyin。gongminqudongmoshishixiandebushimokeershide“xiaojituanjie”,ershi“jijituanjie”,linrenmenbushibeiwanquanzhaizaijiali,ershijinshendizouchujiamen,baochibiyaojulidigongtongshenghuo。

BB视讯官网zaigongminqudongmoshizhong,womenbuzaishirenkoujishuzhongdetongjishuzi,huozhemangmuerbeidongruqitifenzibanzaluanyundongde“xiaodian”,erchengweinengdongxingbeijifade、xunlianyousudeziwozhilizhe,keyizizhusikaobingqiechengdanzeren。

微信图片_20200514105320.jpg

BB视讯官网zhengfuqudongdekejizhiguomoshi

liuyongmou

zhongguorenmindaxuezhexueyuanjiaoshou

BB视讯官网zaiyidingjieduan,cunzai“genchubingdu”he“lapingquxian”liangtiaoyingduiluxian。zhangyuanlaikan,zhongguoyeyaoyubingdu“hepinggongchu”。danshi,texiaoyaowuheyimiaoyanfachulaihou,cainengzhenzhengshixian“butingzhigonggongshenghuodeqingkuangxiayubingdugongcun”。zaizheizhiqian,ruguochuxiandaguimosiwang、yiliaoxitongbengkui、shehuidongdang、jiduanshili,nengshixianhepinggongcunma?zheiyangdeqingkuangyoukenengzaimouxieqianfadaguojiachuxian。

zaimouzhongyiyishang,kangyizhiyouyitiaoluxian: zaitexiaoyaoheyimiaoyanfachulaizhiqian,zuidaxiandujianshaobingduduishehuideshanghai,baokuoshengming、jingji、xinlihezhixudenggefangmiandeshanghai。gegeguojiagenjubutongguoqing,caiqubutongfangfashixianshangshumubiao。suizheduibingdulejiezengduo,geguobuduandiaozhengyingduifangfa。

oumeiyouzijideguoqing: gerenzhuyi、ziyouzhuyishengxing,henduorenyuanyizixingdanze,buxiwangzhengfuguoduoganshe;zuijin30nian,fankexuesichaozaixifangshengxing,gongzhongbuxinrenkexuejishuhezhuanjia;renminpubianchuxuhenshao,duiguojia、zhengfuhejinjizhuangtaidebuxinren,dengdeng。zheixiejuedingoumeizhengfuwufacaiqulixiangzhongdeyangegelicuoshi。

BB视讯官网ruhejiangkejizhiguoyuouzhouguoqingjianrong?nuodemantichukejizhiguodegongminqudongmoshizhideguanzhu。youxiaoshishinuodemanmoshi,xuyaoguominjuyouhengaodekexuesuyang、jiaoyushuipinghezizhinengli。guominsuzhiqingkuangbutong,shishixiaoguobuyiyang。zaipubiankexuesuyangyoudaitigaodeqingkuangxia,gongzhongbixuyaotingquzhuanjiayijian,bunengmangmuxingdong。

BB视讯官网zuoweiyiqingxianfadi,yikaishiduixinbingduhenwuzhi,xuanze2003nianfeidianyiqingleisiyingduimoshihenzhengchang,jiangcovid-19shiweileisisarserfei“dahaoliugan”henziran。zhengfubarenmindeshengmingjiankangfangzaidiyiwei,zhongguochuantongyeyou“renmingguantian”deguandian。zhongguoyiqingyingduichengxiaoyoumugongdu,yeshigenjuguoqingzuochuxuanzedejieguo。

zaizhongguo,kexuehezhuanjiadeweizhijiaogao,fankexuesichaobuliuxing。zaizuojueceqian,zhengfuduikexuejiayijianjiyuzugouzhongshi。buguo,zhengfuqudongdekejizhiguomoshizaizhongguoqudechenggong,zuiguanjiandeshishehuigelishishidehao,zheiguigongyuzhengfuqiangdadedongyuannengli。zhongguochenggonggelihubei,quanguojieduanxing“tingbai”,ranhoujuquanguoyiliaoziyuanbangzhuhubei。

BB视讯官网zhengfuqudongdejishuzhilimoshixianranshigenggaoxiaode,danyexuyaoyixiegengzhouquandekaoliang,ruzuohaoyushehuishequnjiandegoutongyuxiediao、jiangkejishouduanzhiyushehuijianduzhixia、duizhuanjiajinxinglunlihezerenjiaoyu,dengdeng。tongqitaguojiayiyang,shoujizhuizong、“jiankangma”dengwenti,yeyinqileguangfanguanzhu。zheibingfeishenmexinjishucuoshi,yiqingrangyinsiquanbaohuwentibaoludegengmingxian。

BB视讯官网quanqiuwenyibixuyaoquanqiugongtongyingdui,guanqimenlai“dushanqishen”bukeneng。ruguoyinduhefeizhouyiqingdabaofa,qitaguojiabuyingxiushoupangguan,fouzekendinghuirangqitaguojiayiqingsihuifuran。

微信图片_20200514105326.jpg

BB视讯官网meiyoukejizhiguoyueshudefanzhimoshi

kaer·miqiemu

meiguokeluoladuokuangyedaxuejiaoshou

meiguodeyiqingyingduihennanlijie,youqishitelangpuzongtongdeyanxing,henduorenhuijuedefeiyisuosi。suiranxiandejiduan,dantadefanyingbingbuhenqiguai。shijishang,tazaihendachengdushangdaibiaomeiguoshehuidezhuliu,dedaoledayue35%dao45%degongzhongzhichilv,zheishibijiaogaode。

yaolijiemeiguodeyiqingyingdui,jiuyaolejietazhangqidefanzhichuantong。meiguoshishubainianqianduobijiaxianggaoyatongzhideouzhouren“renwei”chuanglide,youqimengsixiangjiamianqiangjianggezhimindipincouzaiyiqi,lifabaohubairendegerenziyou,quejujuejituzhuyindianrenheheirennulitongyangdequanli。liguozheshenzhimeiguodecuiruo,shejileyizhongyoukejizhiguoyueshudemeishiminzhuzhidu: biaodaputongminzhongsuqiudezhongyiyuan,youjingyingzhidecanyiyuanzhiheng,haiyaoyuguizushixuanjuchulaidemeiguozongtongjingzheng,zaijiashangbandulidesifajigou,zuihouchengweiluoweiermiaoshude“yijiaxianyaozijidongqilaidejiqi”。

1828nian,telangpuzuixihuandejiekexunzongtongdangxuan,liguoshidekejizhiguozhixukaishibei“mosun”,shoudaogerenzhuyihetuohuangzhe、niuziwenhuasuoguyoudefanzhizhuyidechongji。yikaishi,meiguojiuxiangshixian“hezhongweiyi”(e pluribus unum),kezhijinmeiyouwanquanshixian,neizhanzhihouyuwailaiyimindexianxishizhixueshangjiashuang。jijindeziyouzhuyizhexuanchengzhiyougeren,shehuizhishiyizhongfudaixianxiang。luosifu“xinzheng”huanheleduijingyinghezhuanjiadehuaiyi,danjiduandefanzhizhuyihegerenzhuyizaimeiguoyijiufeichangshengxing。

BB视讯官网meiguorenmeiyoucongbingdushouzhongbaohushehuidegongshi。ziyouzhuyizhebaohudeshixingjisuoyuandegerenquanli。chixiangfanguandianderenyeyou,yikejizhishizhichengzijidelichang,dedaodezhichiheliliangjiuhenbugou——yaozhidao,35%demeiguorenbuxiangxinjinhualun,jin25%demeiguorenchengrenqihoubianhua。feizhuanyerenshihennanlijiexinkejidejinzhan,zheijimeiguorendezhengzhishenghuodailaijudatiaozhan。

BB视讯官网bushaomeiguominzhongfanduizhuanjiajianyi,kangyishejiaogelihejujiafaling,yaoqiuzhongkaijingjihegonggongshenghuo,gaohugemingniandaidekouhao,biru“buyaoqifuwo”“rangwoziyou,huozherangwosi”,yiji“womenyouquanjuedingruhebaohuziji。rangweiquanzhuyizhengfugunkai”,dengdeng。zhuanjiarongyiqingshitelangpu,dantashimajiyaweilishidedashi,buxuyaozhuanjiashixianxiaolv,zhixuzaituiteshanghuyingshangshuyaoqiu——zaituiteshanggaohan“jiefangmixiegen”“jiefangmingnisuda”“jiefangfujiniya”。bushaomeiguorenmixingerenziyou,zheixianzhilegongminqudongdekejizhiguocuoshizaimeiguodeshixing。

BB视讯官网ziyouzhuyizaimeiguodaozhiduizhuanjiahekexuejiagongtongtidehuaiyi。yixiemeiguokexuejiashenzhibeizhizebuzhongpanguo,bushizhenzhengdemeiguoren。yinci,youdekexuejiabudebuxiangluohouditou,yizhengmingzijide“meiguoxing”,danzuoyongbuda,youshihoubeigaodehengankai: “womenhenzhongcheng,youyouyong,zhidejiwomenzengjiayanjiujingfei”。guanzhuangbingduyanjiuyaoqiujiaqiangkexuejiazhijiandeguojihezuo,zheihuirangzixuwei“zhenzhengmeiguoren”derenjuedezhuanjiazailianheqilaiduifutamen。

mianduiquanqiuyiqingbaofa,wohenhuaiyishifouzhenhuiyouyouxiaodeguojihuoquanqiuxinghezuohexiezuo,youqishifadaguojiashifouhuibangzhubufadaguojia。ouzhoushenzhibunengxianghubangzhu。erduiyuguoneimouxiezhoubangzhuqitazhoudexingdong,yixiemeiguorenzongshihenmaodun,shenzhibibangzhulinjindeqitameizhouguojiagengmaodun,zheizhongtaidukeyizhuisudaojianguoqian13gezhimindizhijiandechongtu。jishiduiwaiyuanzhudelianbangyusuanshuliangyizhihenshao,qirengranzaodaomeiguogongzhongdechixufandui。mouzhongkejizhiguofangmiandequanqiuxingdexiezuohehezuocongweirucibeixuyaoguo,danxiwangmiaomang。


转载自: 《中国科学报》(2019-05-14第5版  文化周刊)